• Description

    The DN 55 High Temperature Dry Sliding & Fretting Machine comprises a special short stroke, minimum trapped oil volume, servo hydraulic actuator, mounted vertically on a massive cast iron base. The actuator incorporates hydrostatic bearings, which, in combination with the minimized oil volume, allows high frequency and short stroke operation.

    The test assembly is located vertically above the actuator and comprises two fixed specimen arms supported on flexural pivot bearings, which are in turn mounted on linear flexure assemblies. Motion in a vertical direction is restrained by piezo force transducers. As each arm reacts against its own independent transducer, the friction between the each moving specimen and each fixed specimen is monitored independently. This allows two different material pairs to be tested simultaneously under identical conditions of load and temperature.

    An electrically fired furnace fits over the top of the test assembly, allowing tests to be run under un-lubricated conditions at temperatures up to 1200°C.

    Load is applied to either side of the moving specimens by squeezing the two fixed specimen arms together by means of a servo controlled pneumatic bellows assembly, with force transducer feedback. This arrangement ensures that there is no bending moment acting on the moving specimen carrier and the actuator.
    The actuator is driven by a Moog super high response servo valve, connected to a high frequency analogue controller, which derives its set points via a 16 bit control and data acquisition card from a standard PC running COMPEND 2020 software. Real time adaptive control features provided within the software allows high precision control of the actuator when working against highly non-linear loads. Sine, square, triangular and random waveforms may be programmed and, depending on the physical capabilities of the hydraulic system, oscillating frequencies up to 500 Hz may be controlled.

    Displacement Control

    The servo actuator, when enabled, is always, for safety reasons, operated under closed loop analogue displacement control with positional feedback from an integral LVDT. An analogue open loop set point is provided to the servo amplifier by the signal generator, which in turn receives an open loop digital set point from the computer control and data acquisition system.
    The displacement control loop is subsequently closed in software using a single error correction adaptive control algorithm. This control action operates each time high-speed data acquisition is triggered. The process involves sampling the measured displacement signal and analysing both the peak amplitude and the mid-stroke position. A proportion of the resulting error is added to or subtracted from the digital set point to the signal generator, thus making a single adjustment to both the peak value of the amplitude and the mid-stroke position. Subsequent repeat high-speed data acquisition cycles make further adjustments with the resulting displacement progressively converging on the required value.
    Depending on the stroke length, the displacement signal for high-speed data acquisition and adaptive displacement control may be taken either from the LVDT (long stroke applications) or from the capacitance probe (short stroke applications).

    Frequency Control and Waveform

    The frequency is set digitally either manually from the on-screen display or from the test sequence file. Similarly, uniform waveforms (sine, triangular or square) may be toggled from the screen or set within the test sequence file. Pre-recorded random waveforms may also be toggled, but under these circumstances, the adaptive control functions must, for obvious reasons, be disabled.

    Signal Processing and Data Acquisition

    Low-speed data, such as temperature, load and r.m.s. parameters, may be stored to hard disk. At the end of a test this data may be manipulated for calculation or graphical presentation using standard spreadsheet software.

    High-speed data acquisition may be triggered either manually from the computer screen or automatically from a test sequence file. The operator may select the number of channels to be recorded, the sampling frequency and the number of samples. Each burst of high-speed data is stored in an independent data file. If triggered automatically through a test sequence file, each burst of high-speed data is stored into a new file, which is automatically time stamped, with a hyperlink automatically generated between the appropriate point in the low-speed data file and the corresponding high-speed data file.

    Impact Sliding and Impact Fretting Tests

    For impact sliding and fretting tests, the standard fixed specimens are replaced by wedge shaped specimens. The moving specimen is withdrawn from contact and the fixed specimens are loaded against a stop with a pre-set force applied by means of the pneumatic bellows. To perform a test, the moving specimen is brought into contact with the fixed specimens under velocity control. Adaptive control functions in the software allow peak to peak tuning of the displacement in order to achieve either a required displacement or a required impact force.

    Impact and Hertzian Fretting Tests

    For impact and Hertzian fretting tests, to twin fork tooling is replaced by a single fixed specimen mounting system. Impact tests are performed with the fixed and moving specimens coming in and out of contact. Hertzian fretting tests are performed with the specimens in continuous contact.

    DN 55/1 Small Perturbation Signal Generator

    This optional additional signal generator and signal analysis system allows combined sliding motion with co-axial vibration to be generated. The standard servo amplifier incorporates a summing junction on the input stage with dual inputs. This means that with the addition of a second signal generator, two separate signal inputs, one low frequency and long stroke and one high frequency and short stroke, can be combined, thus producing reciprocating motion with superimposed vibration from a single servo hydraulic actuator.

  • Technical Specifications

    Type of contact: Ball/Flat
    Maximum Specimen Diameter: 20 mm
    Type of Movement: Sine, Square, Triangular and Random
    Maximum Load: 2000 N
    Maximum Friction Force: +/-2000N
    Stroke – continuously variable: 10 microns to 20 mm
    Frequency: 0.1 Hz to 200 Hz
    Environment: Dry
    Temperature: Ambient to 1200°C
    Super High Response Servo Valve: 12 l/min
    Actuator Bearings: Hydrostatic
    Dynamic Load: 5.7 kN
    Static Load: 8.6 kN
    Hydraulic Power Pack: 12 l/min at 250 bar
    High Speed Interface: PCI bus
    Resolution: 16 bit
    Number of Input Channels: 1 to 16
    Maximum Data Rate: One channel at 250 kHz
    Interface: Phoenix Tribology USB micro-controller interface
    Software: COMPEND 2020
    DN 55/1 Small Perturbation Signal Generator
    Type of Movement: Sinusoidal sliding stroke with co-linear superimposed sinusoidal perturbation
    Sliding Motion:
    Maximum Stroke: 20 mm (Amplitude: 10 mm)
    Type of Movement: Sinusoidal
    Frequency (FS): 0 to 5 Hz
    Vibration Motion:
    Stroke/Frequency: 200 microns (Amplitude 100 microns) @ 0 to 200 Hz
    100 microns (Amplitude 50 microns) @ 0 to 300 Hz
    Frequency (FP): 0 – 300 Hz
    Control Requirements: FP must be greater than FS x 20
    Controlled Parameters Frequency
    Test Duration
    Measured Parameters Frequency
    Electricity: 220/240V, single phase, 50 Hz, 7.5 kW
    110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 7.5 kW
    Mains water and drain: 10 l/min (typical)

  • Applications

    aerospace materials
    ball on plate
    fretting wear
    high temperature testing
    impact sliding
    oxidative wear
    reciprocating sliding
    severe oxidative wear
    sliding line contact

  • Publications


    Paper # 278  An Experimental Investigation on Composite Fretting Mode
    Zhu M H, Zhou Z R, Kapsa P, Vincent L,
    Tribology International, 34 (2001) 733-738.
    Paper # 281  The Prediction of Fretting Fatigue Resistance of Various Surface Modification Layers on 1045 Steel: Role of Fretting Maps
    Xu G Z, Liu J J, Zhou Z R,
    Tribology International, 34 (2001) 569-575.
    Paper # 286  Radial Fretting Fatigue Damage of Surface Coatings
    Zhu M H, Zhou Z R, Kapsa P, Vincent L,
    Wear 250 (2001) 650-657.
    Paper # 634  A practical methodology to select fretting palliatives: Application to shot peening, hard chromium and WC-Co coatings
    K Kubiak, S Fouvry, AM Marechal
    Wear Volume 259, Issues 1-6, July-August 2005, p. 367-376
    Paper # 635  A quantitative approach of Ti–6Al–4V fretting damage: friction, wear and crack nucleation
    S Fouvry, P Duóa, P Perruchaut
    Wear Volume 257, Issues 9-10, November 2004, p. 916-929
    Paper # 640  High-load fretting of Ti–6Al–4V interfaces in point contact
    X Huang and RW Neu
    Wear Volume 265, Issues 7-8, 20 September 2008, p. 971-978
    Paper # 641  Fretting Behavior of AISI 301 Stainless Steel Sheet n Full Hard Condition
    M R Hirsch
    Thesis presented to the Academic Faculty Georgia Institute of Technology August 2008
    Paper # 728  Fretting damage in thin sheets: Analysis of an experimental configuration
    MR Hirsch, RW Neu
    6 th International Symposium on Fretting Fatigue, Chengdu, China, April 19-21, 2010
    Paper # 729  Fretting behaviour of AISI 301 stainless steel sheet in full hard condition in contact with AISI 52100 steel
    MR Hirsch, RW Neu
    Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces 2008 VOL 2 NO 1
    Paper # 780  Relationships between the fretting wear behavior and the ball cratering resistance of solid lubricant coatings
    DB Luo, V Fridrici
    Surface and Coatings Technology 2010 Volume 204, Issue 8, p. 1259-1269
    Paper # 784  Selecting solid lubricant coatings under fretting conditions
    DB Luo, V Fridrici
    Wear 2010 Volume 268, Issues 5-6, p. 816-827
    Paper # 788  Surface property enhancement of Ni-free medical grade austenitic stainless steel by low-temperature plasma carburising
    J Buhagiar, L Qian
    Surface and Coatings Technology 2010 Volume 205, Issue 2, p. 388-395
    Paper # 870  Influence of temperature on the fretting response between AISI 301 stainless steel and AISI 52100 steel
    MR Hirsch, RW Neu
    Tribology International – Available online 14 November 2012
    Paper # 909  A simple model for friction evolution infretting
    MR Hirsch, RW Neu
    Wear Volume 301, Issues 1–2, April–May 2013, Pages 517–523
    Paper # 910  A new multicontact tribometer for deterministic dynamic friction identification
    JL Dion, G Chevallier, O Penas, F Renaud
    Wear Volume 300, Issues 1–2, 15 March 2013, Pages 126–135
    Paper # 1311   Coefficient of friction evolution with temperature under fretting wear for FeCrAl fuel cladding candidate
    T Winter, RW Neu, PM Singh, LE Kolaya
    Journal of Nuclear, 2019 – Elsevier
    Paper #1348  Validation of a dry sliding wear simulation method for wastegate bearings in automotive turbochargers
    AA Schmidt, J Plánka, T Schmidt, O Grabherr, D Bartel
    Tribology International – 2020 – Elsevier


  • User List

    Launched 2000

    Honeywell Inc Czech Republic
    SNECMA France
    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Japan
    National Physical Laboratory UK
    Georgia Tech USA

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