A bearing housing carries two parallel shafts. The lower shaft carries a flat profile ring or roller and is connected to an a.c. servo motor. The upper shaft is carried in a spherical bearing at one end that permits rotation about the gear contact line and has a floating bearing at the other end. This allows the shaft to pivot freely in the vertical and horizontal axes.

    Horizontal movement in the direction perpendicular to the upper shaft axis and is resisted by a strain gauge transducer. This gives measurements of the tangential force in the contact, which is displayed as friction force on the control unit.

    Load is applied through a lever acting in the vertical plane on the front end of the upper shaft, pressing on the outer race of the floating bearing. Load is applied to the other end of the lever by a low friction pneumatic cylinder, which is manually set using a precision regulator. A strain gauge beam force transducer is provided to sense the applied load.

    A sealed chamber surrounds the test specimens and incorporates a heater element to maintain the test fluid temperature.

    In two roller configuration the upper shaft carries a roller and is driven from the lower shaft through a pair of gears. Seven fixed percentage slip ratios are provided.

    For line contact tests, the upper roller is mounted on a self-aligning bearing to achieve full width contact between the specimens. For elliptical contact tests, the upper roller is crowned and rigidly mounted on the shaft

    In block on ring configuration the upper shaft carries a holder for the fixed specimen and is restrained from rotating. For self-locating specimens such as a ball (ball on cylinder test) or a cylinder (crossed cylinder test), a rigid holder is used. For block specimens in line contact (block on ring test) a self-aligning holder is used.

    Roller and block specimens can be manufactured easily from a variety of materials including metals, plastics, elastomers and ceramics.

    Control and Data Acquisition

    Speed set-point control is manual, implemented via a PLC, with inputs via touch-screen. Data is recorded at 1 Hz sampling rate, stored by the PLC and exported on USB stick, for post-processing.


  • Technical Specifications

    Contact Geometry: Crossed Cylinder
    Ball on Cylinder
    Block on Ring
    Two Roller
    Speed Range: 30 to 1200 rpm
    Equivalent Velocity: up to 4 m/s
    Slip Rate Gears: 1.79, 5.13, 8.70, 10.53, 13.33, 18.18 and 22.22%
    Friction Range: 130 N
    Load Range: 50 to 750 N
    Bath Temperature: ambient to 150°C
    Heater Power: 150 W
    Temperature Sensor: k-type thermocouple
    Roller Size: 60 mm diameter
    Sliding Specimen: 12.7 mm ball, roller or block
    User Interface: PLC with touch-screen
    Data Acquisition Rate: 1 Hz
    Data Export: USB stick
    Motor: 0.75 kW ac servo motor
    Manually Controlled Parameters Load
    Rotational Speed
    Reservoir Temperature
    Test Duration
    Measured Parameters Load
    Friction Force
    Rotational Speed
    Number of Revolutions
    Test Duration
    Electricity: 220/240V, single phase, 50 Hz, 1.2 kW
    110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 1.2 kW
    Bench-mounting machine: 1,000 mm x 200 mm x 250 mm high, 40 kg
    Bench-mounting cabinet: 530 mm x 520 mm x 400 mm high , 25 kg
    Packing Specification: 0.48 m3, GW 145 kg, NW 97 kg

  • Applications

    ball on cylinder
    block on ring
    crossed cylinder
    sliding-rolling contact
    sliding-rolling line contact
    traction coefficient
    traction fluids

  • Overview Videos



  • Publications

    Paper # 97  The Effect of Processing Route, Composition and Hardness on the Wear Response of Chromium Bearing Steels in a Rolling-Sliding Configuration
    Hanlon D N, Rainforth W M, Sellars C M,
    Wear 203-204, 1997, 220-229.
    Paper # 153  The Rolling/Sliding Wear Response of Conventionally Processed and Spray Formed High Chromium Content Cast Iron at Ambient and Elevated Temperature
    Hanlon D N, Rainforth W M, Sellars C M,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 587-599.
    Paper # 157  Development and Use of ASTM Standards for Wear Testing
    Blau P J, Budinski K G,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 1159-1170.
    Paper # 257  Tribological Properties of Electric Arc-Sprayed CuSn Coating for Bearing Elements
    M Toparli, E Celik, I Birlik, E Dokumaci
    Tribology Transactions, Volume 52, Issue 3 May 2009 , p. 389 – 394
    Paper # 378  Wear Behaviour of Tool Steels with added (WTi)C Particles
    Leonard A J, Rainforth W M,
    Wear 255 (2003) 517 – 526
    Paper # 384  The Rolling Sliding Wear Response of Conventionally Processed and Spray Formed High Speed Steel at Ambient and Elevated Temperature
    Hanlon D N, Rainforth W M,
    Wear 255 (2003) 956 – 966
    Paper # 469  High resolution observations of friction-induced oxide and its interaction with the worn surface
    WM Rainforth, AJ Leonard, C Perrin, A Bedolla
    Tribology International Volume 35, Issue 11 , November 2002, p. 731-748
    Paper # 486  Mechanical and tribological properties of electrolytic hard chrome and HVOF-sprayed coatings
    G Bolelli, V Cannillo, L Lusvarghi, S Riccò
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 200, Issue 9, 8 February 2006, p. 2995-3009
    Paper # 546  The wear of wrought aluminium alloys under dry sliding conditions
    MJ Ghazali, WM Rainforth, H Jones
    Tribology International Volume 40, Issue 2, February 2007, p. 160-169
    Paper # 547  Thermal aging effects on mechanical and tribological performance of PEEK and short fiber reinforced PEEK composites
    T Sinmazçelik, T Yilmaz
    Materials & Design Volume 28, Issue 2, 2007, p. 641-648
    Paper # 570  Wear behavior of austempered ductile irons with dual matrix structures
    Y Sahin, M Erdogan, V Kilicli
    Materials Science and Engineering: A Volume 444, Issues 1-2, 25 January 2007, p. 31-38
    Paper # 573  Wear behaviour of tool steels with added(WTi) C particles
    AJ Leonard, WM Rainforth
    Wear Volume 255, Number 1, August 2003, pp. 517-526
    Paper # 575  Wear mechanisms of monolithic and multicomponent nitride coatings grown by combined arc etching and unbalanced magnetron sputtering
    Q Luo, WM Rainforth, WD Münz
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volumes 146-147, September-October 2001, p. 430-435
    Paper # 607  The friction and wear of various hard-face claddings for deep-hole drilling
    J Truhan, R Menon, F LeClaire, J Wallin, J Qu, P Blau,
    Wear Volume 263, Issues 1-6, 10 September 2007, p. 234-239
    Paper # 608  Experimental Study of the Smoothing Effect of a Ceramic Rolling Element on a Bearing Raceway in Contaminated Lubrication
    W Wang, PL Wong, F He, GTY Wan,
    Tribology Letters Volume 28, Number 1 / October, 2007
    Paper # 609  A quantitative analysis of the influence of carbides size distributions on wear behaviour of high-speed steel in dry rolling/sliding contact
    C Rodenburg, WM Rainforth,
    Acta Materialia Volume 55, Issue 7, April 2007, p. 2443-2454
    Paper # 642  Wear Mechanism of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Under Dry Sliding Using Fuzzy Clustering Technique
    V Srinivasan, B Asaithambi, G Ganesan, R Karthikeyan, and K Palanikumar
    Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 2008
    Paper # 643  Plasma sprayed composite coatings obtained by liquid injection of secondary phases
    F Cipri, F Marra, G Pulci, J Tirillò, C Bartuli and T Valente
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 203, Issue 15, 25 May 2009, Pages 2116-2124
    Paper # 644  Developing a mathematical model to evaluate wear rate of AA7075/SiCp powder metallurgy composites
    S Kumar and V Balasubramanian
    Wear Volume 264, Issues 11-12, 10 May 2008, p. 1026-1034
    Paper # 698  Wear mechanisms experienced by a work roll grade high speed steel under different environmental conditions
    NF Garza-Montes-de-Oca, WM Rainforth
    Wear of Materials 2009
    Paper # 742  A study of TiNiCr ternary shape memory alloys
    SF Hsieh, SL Chen, HC Lin, MH Lin
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds Volume 494, Issues 1-2, 2 April 2010, p. 155-160
    Paper # 747  Comparative evaluation of dry sliding wear behaviour of plasma transferred arc hardfaced surfaces by the pin-on-roller method
    CS Ramachandran
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology Volume 224, Number 1 / 2010 p. 91-106
    Paper # 748  Comparative study on the wear behavior of long and short glass fiber reinforced plastics
    V Srinivasan, R Karthikeyan, G Ganesan
    Metals and Materials International 2010 Volume 16, Number 2, 205-212
    Paper # 750  Effect of contact load and lubricant volume on the properties of tribofilms formed under boundary lubrication in a fully formulated oil under extreme load conditions
    G Nehme, R Mourhatch
    Wear 2010 Volume 268, Issues 9-10, p. 1129-1147
    Paper # 751  Effect of reinforcement size and volume fraction on the abrasive wear behaviour of AA7075 Al/SiCp P/M composites–A statistical analysis
    S Kumar
    Tribology International 2010 Volume 43, Issues 1-2, p. 414-422
    Paper # 757  Erosion and wear behavior of nitrocarburized DC53 tool steel
    DC Wen
    Wear 2010 Volume 268, Issues 3-4, p. 629-636
    Paper # 762  Friction and dry sliding wear behavior of carbon and glass fabric reinforced vinyl ester composites
    B Suresha, K Shiva Kumar, S Seetharamu
    Tribology International 2010 Volume 43, Issue 3, p. 602-609
    Paper # 777  Effect of Different Surface Treatment Methods on the Friction and Effect of Different Surface Treatment Methods on the Friction and Wear Behavior of AISI 4140 Steel
    M Ulutan, ON Celik, H Gasan
    Journal of Materials Science & Technology 2010 Volume 26, Issue 3, p. 251-257
    Paper # 794  Tribological behavior of a 20CrMo alloy implanted with nitrogen ions by plasma source ion implantation
    HB He, HY Li
    Wear 2010 Volume 268, Issues 3-4, p. 399-404
    Paper # 802  Wear properties of DLC-coated steel rollers running with highly contaminated lubrication
    F He, PL Wong
    Tribology International 2010, Volume 43, Issues 5-6, p. 990-996
    Paper # 810  Fluorinated FeF3 catalyst interactions in three different oil formulations using design of experiment optimization and chemistry characterization of tribofilms
    G Nehme
    Lubrication Science Volume 23, Issue 4, pages 153–179, June 2011
    Paper # 811  Fluorinated mix in plain ZDDP oil and commercial oil using design of experiment analysis of all interactions and fundamental study of fluorinated mix in plain ZDDP oils under 2 different r/min test cycles and extreme boundary lubrication
    G Nehme
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology April 2011 vol. 225 no. 4 193-211
    Paper # 812  Feasibility of utilizing response surface methodology for predicting wear of steels
    B Selçuk
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology May 2011 vol. 225 no. 5 277-287
    Paper # 813  Material Science and Technology Division
    David P Stinton Technical Project Manager
    Quarterly Progress Report for April through June 2011 David P. Stinton Technical Project Manager
    Paper # 816  Optimization of Mechanism of Boundary Lubrication in Fully Formulated Commercial Engine Oil Using Design of Experiment
    GN Nehme
    Tribology Transactions Volume 54, Issue 2, 2011
    Paper # 818  The Tribological Performance of Plain and Fully Formulated Commercial Engine Oil under 2 Different Rotational Speeds and Extreme Pressure Contact Using Design of Experiment
    GN Nehme
    Tribology Transactions Volume 54, Issue 4, 2011
    Paper # 819  The Effect of FeF3/TiF3 catalysts on the thermal and tribological performance of plain oil ZDDP under extreme pressure loading
    G Nehme
    Wear – Accepted for Publication 2011
    Paper # 820  Dry sliding wear behaviour of powder metallurgy Al-Mg-Si alloy-MoSi2 composites and the relationship with the microstructure
    J Corrochano, JC Walker, M Lieblich, J Ibáñez
    Wear Volume 270, Issues 9-10, 4 April 2011, Pages 658-665
    Paper # 827  Interactions of fluorinated catalyst and polutetrafluoroethylene in two different plain zinc dialkyldithiophosphate oils and one fully formulated oil using design of Experiment
    G Nehme
    Lubrication Science Volume 23, Issue 4, pages 181–201, June 2011
    Paper # 861  Effect of Extreme Load on Plain ZDDP Oil in the Presence of FeF3 Catalyst Using Design of Experiment and Fundamental Study under Two Different Rotational Speeds
    G Nehme
    Tribology Transactions Volume 55, Issue 6, 2012
    Paper # 883  Tribological and Thermal Characteristics of Reduced phosphorus plain ZDDP oil in the Presence of PTFE/FeF3/TiF3 under Optimized Extreme Loading condition and a break in period using 2 different rotational speeds
    G Nehme
    Wear – Available online 3 December 2012
    Paper # 890  Usability of Boron as an Alloying Element in Gray Cast Iron Rollers and its Effect to Abrasive Wear Behaviour
    C Meran, M Yuksel
    Advanced Materials Research (Volume 445) January 2012
    Paper # 911  Analysis of fluorinated interactions in plain ZDDP and fully formulated oils using design of xperiment (DOE) and chemistry characterization of tribofilms in boundary lubrication under extreme loading conditions
    G Nehme
    Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, 2013
    Paper # 912  Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Nanostructured WC–Co Coatings
    G Di Girolamo, F Marra, L Pilloni, G Pulci
    International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology Volume 10, Issue 1, pages 60–71, January/February 2013
    Paper # 913  Subsurface modifications in powder metallurgy aluminium alloy composites reinforced with intermetallic MoS2 particles under dry sliding wear
    M Lieblich, J Corrochano, J Ibáñez, V Vadillo
    Wear Volume 309, Issues 1–2, 15 January 2014, Pages 126–133
    Paper # 997  Optimization of Extreme Load and Break-in Period in Plain ZDDP Oil with FeF3 Catalyst Using Design of Experiment and Fundamental Study under Different Speeds
    GN Nehme, M Dib
    Tribology Transactions, 2014, Taylor & Francis
    Paper # 1007  Wear modelling in rail–wheel contact
    Ramalho A
    Wear Volumes 330–331, May–June 2015, Pages 524–532
    Paper # 1015  Effect of extreme contact load under two different rotational speeds on reduced phosphorus plain ZDDP oil in the presence of 1?per?cent FeF3 catalyst
    G Nehme
    Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, August 2011; vol. 225, 8: pp. 833-844
    Paper # 1019  Effects of Sliding Speed in a CuZn10 Brass Material on Wear
    M Bagci, H Imrek
    Paper # 1040  The effect of particle concentration in a magneto rheological suspension on the performance of a boundary lubricated contact
    W. C. Leung, W. A. Bullough, P. L. Wong and C Feng
    Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, April 1, 2004; vol. 218, 4: pp. 251-264
    Paper # 1098  Análise do desgaste abrasivo de peças agrícolas revestidas por diferentes processos de soldagem
    R Missio
    Paper # 1103  Caracterização, tratamento e aproveitamento das cinzas da casca do arroz em processos produtivos do ramo industrial
    AC Steffen¹, J Schmidt, G Menin, M Paulo, FK Stracke
    Paper # 1138  Optimization of Mechanism of Boundary Lubrication in Fully Formulated Commercial Engine Oil Using Design of Experiment
    GN Nehme, M Dib
    Tribology & Lubrication Technology – Volume 73 Issue 8 August 2017
    Paper # 1153  Wear and friction behaviour of high-speed steel and indefinite chill material for rolling ferritic stainless steels
    L Hao, H Wu, D Wei, X Cheng, J Zhao, S Luo, L Jiang
    Wear – Volumes 376–377, Part B, 15 April 2017, Pages 1580-1585
    Paper # 1162 Caracterização, tratamento e utilização da cinza da casca de arroz na produção de tinta/Characterization, treatment and use of rice hullash in the production of paint
    MP Stracke, F Kieckow, J Schmidt
    Brazilian Applied Science Review v. 2, n. 1 (2018)
    Paper # 1163 Estudo tribológico do revestimento de Stellite 6, Aspergido por HVOF antes e após polimento, e do substrato de aço inoxidável AISI 304
    PHE Rodrigues
    2018 – dspace.unipampa.edu.br
    Paper # 1225 The Effect of Coatings on the Wear Behavior of Ti6Al4V Alloy Used in Biomedical Applications
    Ş. Danışman, D Odabas, M Teber – IOP Conference Series
    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 295, conference 1
    Paper # 1240 Wear behavior of various dental restorative materials
    MS Zafar
    Materials Technology – Advanced Performance Materials Volume 34, 2019 – Issue 1
    Paper # 1256  Wear behavior of various dental restorative materials
    MS Zafar
    Materials Technology, 2019 – Taylor & Francis
    Paper # 1312  Avaliação da resistência ao desgaste e tenacidade do aço AISI M2 com tratamento criogênico
    LFS Leonardi
    2019 –
    Paper # 1313  Efeitos do Processo de Refusão a Laser na Microestrutura e No Comportamento de Desgaste do Revestimento de WC Aspergido com HVOF
    RC Panziera, ACC Oliveira
    Matéria (Rio de Janeiro), 2019 – SciELO Brasil
    D do Amaral Mengotti, DG Fantineli
    Anais do Salão, 2019
    Paper # 1315  Tribological and high-temperature mechanical characterization of cold sprayed and PTA-deposited Stellite coatings
    L Baiamonte, M Tului, C Bartuli, D Marini
    Surface and Coatings, 2019 – Elsevier
    Paper #1349  Investigation of Tribological Properties of Rail and Wheel Steels
    F Bozkurt, Ü Er
    Metal Science and Heat Treatment – 2020 – Springer


  • User List

    Launched 1998

    Wollongong University Australia
    Siebersdorf Research Centre Austria
    Universite de Liege Belgium
    NV Bekaert SA Belgium
    Fundação Universidade Federal do Pampa Brazil
    Fundação Universidade Federal do Pampa Brazil
    Université du Québec Canada
    I.U.T. Valenciennes France
    Hong Kong University Hong Kong
    Annamali University India
    Central Power Research Institute India
    G.B. Pant University India
    N.E.R.I.S.T. India
    Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia
    La Spienza Italy
    Kawamura Research Laboratories Japan
    Mitsubishi Oil Company Japan
    Goldstar Research Korea
    Hang Yang University Korea
    Keimyung University Korea
    Kyung Buk University Korea
    Kyung Sang University Korea
    Kyung Sang University Korea
    Pusan National University Korea
    Mazal Mexico
    Centro Technologico da Ceramica e do Vidro Portugal
    Arab Engineers Co Ltd Saudi Arabia
    University of Oviedo Spain
    Hoganas Sweden
    China Steel Corporation Taiwan
    China Steel Corporation Taiwan
    China Steel Corporation Taiwan
    N.C.K.U. Taiwan
    National Cheng Kung University Taiwan
    National College Taiwan
    National Taiwan Ocean University Taiwan
    National Taiwan University Taiwan
    Tatung Institute of Technology Taiwan
    Sanpany Instruments Co Ltd Taiwan
    Anadolu University, Eskisehir Turkey
    Bogazici University, Istanbul Turkey
    Cumhuriyet University, Sivas Turkey
    Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir Turkey
    Erciyes University, Kayseri Turkey
    Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul Turkey
    Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon Turkey
    Kocaeli University, Kocaeli Turkey
    Middle East Technical University, Ankara Turkey
    Pamukkale University, Denizli Turkey
    Sakarya University, Sakarya Turkey
    Selcuk University, Konya Turkey
    Uludag University, Bursa Turkey
    Yildiz University, Istanbul Turkey
    University of Warwick UK
    Brico Engineering UK
    National Centre of Tribology UK
    National Centre of Tribology UK
    University of Sheffield UK
    Oakridge National Laboratory USA
    University of Texas USA
    Vecomtech Vietnam

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