A bearing housing carries two parallel shafts. The lower shaft carries a flat profile ring or roller and is connected to an a.c. servo motor. The upper shaft is carried in a spherical bearing at one end that permits rotation about the gear contact line and has a floating bearing at the other end. This allows the shaft to pivot freely in the vertical and horizontal axes.
Horizontal movement in the direction perpendicular to the upper shaft axis and is resisted by a strain gauge transducer. This gives measurements of the tangential force in the contact, which is displayed as friction force on the control unit.
Load is applied through a lever acting in the vertical plane on the front end of the upper shaft, pressing on the outer race of the floating bearing. Load is applied to the other end of the lever by a low friction pneumatic cylinder, which is manually set using a precision regulator. A strain gauge beam force transducer is provided to sense the applied load.
A sealed chamber surrounds the test specimens and incorporates a heater element to maintain the test fluid temperature.
In two roller configuration the upper shaft carries a roller and is driven from the lower shaft through a pair of gears. Seven fixed percentage slip ratios are provided.
For line contact tests, the upper roller is mounted on a self-aligning bearing to achieve full width contact between the specimens. For elliptical contact tests, the upper roller is crowned and rigidly mounted on the shaft
In block on ring configuration the upper shaft carries a holder for the fixed specimen and is restrained from rotating. For self-locating specimens such as a ball (ball on cylinder test) or a cylinder (crossed cylinder test), a rigid holder is used. For block specimens in line contact (block on ring test) a self-aligning holder is used.
Roller and block specimens can be manufactured easily from a variety of materials including metals, plastics, elastomers and ceramics.
Control and Data Acquisition
Speed set-point control is manual, implemented via a PLC, with inputs via touch-screen. Data is recorded at 1 Hz sampling rate, stored by the PLC and exported on USB stick, for post-processing.
Contact Geometry: Crossed Cylinder Ball on Cylinder Block on Ring Two Roller Speed Range: 30 to 1200 rpm Equivalent Velocity: up to 4 m/s Slip Rate Gears: 1.79, 5.13, 8.70, 10.53, 13.33, 18.18 and 22.22% Friction Range: 130 N Load Range: 50 to 750 N Bath Temperature: ambient to 150°C Heater Power: 150 W Temperature Sensor: k-type thermocouple Roller Size: 60 mm diameter Sliding Specimen: 12.7 mm ball, roller or block User Interface: PLC with touch-screen Data Acquisition Rate: 1 Hz Data Export: USB stick Motor: 0.75 kW ac servo motor Manually Controlled Parameters Load Rotational Speed Reservoir Temperature Test Duration Measured Parameters Load Friction Force Temperature Rotational Speed Number of Revolutions Test Duration Services Electricity: 220/240V, single phase, 50 Hz, 1.2 kW 110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 1.2 kW Installation Bench-mounting machine: 1,000 mm x 200 mm x 250 mm high, 40 kg Bench-mounting cabinet: 530 mm x 520 mm x 400 mm high , 25 kg Packing Specification: 0.48 m3, GW 145 kg, NW 97 kg
ball on cylinder block on ring crossed cylinder multi-function sliding-rolling contact sliding-rolling line contact traction coefficient traction fluids
Paper # 97 The Effect of Processing Route, Composition and Hardness on the Wear Response of Chromium Bearing Steels in a Rolling-Sliding Configuration Hanlon D N, Rainforth W M, Sellars C M, Wear 203-204, 1997, 220-229. Paper # 153 The Rolling/Sliding Wear Response of Conventionally Processed and Spray Formed High Chromium Content Cast Iron at Ambient and Elevated Temperature Hanlon D N, Rainforth W M, Sellars C M, Wear 225-229 (1999), 587-599. Paper # 157 Development and Use of ASTM Standards for Wear Testing Blau P J, Budinski K G, Wear 225-229 (1999), 1159-1170. Paper # 257 Tribological Properties of Electric Arc-Sprayed CuSn Coating for Bearing Elements M Toparli, E Celik, I Birlik, E Dokumaci Tribology Transactions, Volume 52, Issue 3 May 2009 , p. 389 – 394 Paper # 378 Wear Behaviour of Tool Steels with added (WTi)C Particles Leonard A J, Rainforth W M, Wear 255 (2003) 517 – 526 Paper # 384 The Rolling Sliding Wear Response of Conventionally Processed and Spray Formed High Speed Steel at Ambient and Elevated Temperature Hanlon D N, Rainforth W M, Wear 255 (2003) 956 – 966 Paper # 469 High resolution observations of friction-induced oxide and its interaction with the worn surface WM Rainforth, AJ Leonard, C Perrin, A Bedolla Tribology International Volume 35, Issue 11 , November 2002, p. 731-748 Paper # 486 Mechanical and tribological properties of electrolytic hard chrome and HVOF-sprayed coatings G Bolelli, V Cannillo, L Lusvarghi, S Riccò Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 200, Issue 9, 8 February 2006, p. 2995-3009 Paper # 546 The wear of wrought aluminium alloys under dry sliding conditions MJ Ghazali, WM Rainforth, H Jones Tribology International Volume 40, Issue 2, February 2007, p. 160-169 Paper # 547 Thermal aging effects on mechanical and tribological performance of PEEK and short fiber reinforced PEEK composites T Sinmazçelik, T Yilmaz Materials & Design Volume 28, Issue 2, 2007, p. 641-648 Paper # 570 Wear behavior of austempered ductile irons with dual matrix structures Y Sahin, M Erdogan, V Kilicli Materials Science and Engineering: A Volume 444, Issues 1-2, 25 January 2007, p. 31-38 Paper # 573 Wear behaviour of tool steels with added(WTi) C particles AJ Leonard, WM Rainforth Wear Volume 255, Number 1, August 2003, pp. 517-526 Paper # 575 Wear mechanisms of monolithic and multicomponent nitride coatings grown by combined arc etching and unbalanced magnetron sputtering Q Luo, WM Rainforth, WD Münz Surface and Coatings Technology Volumes 146-147, September-October 2001, p. 430-435 Paper # 607 The friction and wear of various hard-face claddings for deep-hole drilling J Truhan, R Menon, F LeClaire, J Wallin, J Qu, P Blau, Wear Volume 263, Issues 1-6, 10 September 2007, p. 234-239 Paper # 608 Experimental Study of the Smoothing Effect of a Ceramic Rolling Element on a Bearing Raceway in Contaminated Lubrication W Wang, PL Wong, F He, GTY Wan, Tribology Letters Volume 28, Number 1 / October, 2007 Paper # 609 A quantitative analysis of the influence of carbides size distributions on wear behaviour of high-speed steel in dry rolling/sliding contact C Rodenburg, WM Rainforth, Acta Materialia Volume 55, Issue 7, April 2007, p. 2443-2454 Paper # 642 Wear Mechanism of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Under Dry Sliding Using Fuzzy Clustering Technique V Srinivasan, B Asaithambi, G Ganesan, R Karthikeyan, and K Palanikumar Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 2008 Paper # 643 Plasma sprayed composite coatings obtained by liquid injection of secondary phases F Cipri, F Marra, G Pulci, J Tirillò, C Bartuli and T Valente Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 203, Issue 15, 25 May 2009, Pages 2116-2124 Paper # 644 Developing a mathematical model to evaluate wear rate of AA7075/SiCp powder metallurgy composites S Kumar and V Balasubramanian Wear Volume 264, Issues 11-12, 10 May 2008, p. 1026-1034 Paper # 698 Wear mechanisms experienced by a work roll grade high speed steel under different environmental conditions NF Garza-Montes-de-Oca, WM Rainforth Wear of Materials 2009 Paper # 742 A study of TiNiCr ternary shape memory alloys SF Hsieh, SL Chen, HC Lin, MH Lin Journal of Alloys and Compounds Volume 494, Issues 1-2, 2 April 2010, p. 155-160 Paper # 747 Comparative evaluation of dry sliding wear behaviour of plasma transferred arc hardfaced surfaces by the pin-on-roller method CS Ramachandran Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology Volume 224, Number 1 / 2010 p. 91-106 Paper # 748 Comparative study on the wear behavior of long and short glass fiber reinforced plastics V Srinivasan, R Karthikeyan, G Ganesan Metals and Materials International 2010 Volume 16, Number 2, 205-212 Paper # 750 Effect of contact load and lubricant volume on the properties of tribofilms formed under boundary lubrication in a fully formulated oil under extreme load conditions G Nehme, R Mourhatch Wear 2010 Volume 268, Issues 9-10, p. 1129-1147 Paper # 751 Effect of reinforcement size and volume fraction on the abrasive wear behaviour of AA7075 Al/SiCp P/M composites–A statistical analysis S Kumar Tribology International 2010 Volume 43, Issues 1-2, p. 414-422 Paper # 757 Erosion and wear behavior of nitrocarburized DC53 tool steel DC Wen Wear 2010 Volume 268, Issues 3-4, p. 629-636 Paper # 762 Friction and dry sliding wear behavior of carbon and glass fabric reinforced vinyl ester composites B Suresha, K Shiva Kumar, S Seetharamu Tribology International 2010 Volume 43, Issue 3, p. 602-609 Paper # 777 Effect of Different Surface Treatment Methods on the Friction and Effect of Different Surface Treatment Methods on the Friction and Wear Behavior of AISI 4140 Steel M Ulutan, ON Celik, H Gasan Journal of Materials Science & Technology 2010 Volume 26, Issue 3, p. 251-257 Paper # 794 Tribological behavior of a 20CrMo alloy implanted with nitrogen ions by plasma source ion implantation HB He, HY Li Wear 2010 Volume 268, Issues 3-4, p. 399-404 Paper # 802 Wear properties of DLC-coated steel rollers running with highly contaminated lubrication F He, PL Wong Tribology International 2010, Volume 43, Issues 5-6, p. 990-996 Paper # 810 Fluorinated FeF3 catalyst interactions in three different oil formulations using design of experiment optimization and chemistry characterization of tribofilms G Nehme Lubrication Science Volume 23, Issue 4, pages 153–179, June 2011 Paper # 811 Fluorinated mix in plain ZDDP oil and commercial oil using design of experiment analysis of all interactions and fundamental study of fluorinated mix in plain ZDDP oils under 2 different r/min test cycles and extreme boundary lubrication G Nehme Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology April 2011 vol. 225 no. 4 193-211 Paper # 812 Feasibility of utilizing response surface methodology for predicting wear of steels B Selçuk Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology May 2011 vol. 225 no. 5 277-287 Paper # 813 Material Science and Technology Division David P Stinton Technical Project Manager Quarterly Progress Report for April through June 2011 David P. Stinton Technical Project Manager Paper # 816 Optimization of Mechanism of Boundary Lubrication in Fully Formulated Commercial Engine Oil Using Design of Experiment GN Nehme Tribology Transactions Volume 54, Issue 2, 2011 Paper # 818 The Tribological Performance of Plain and Fully Formulated Commercial Engine Oil under 2 Different Rotational Speeds and Extreme Pressure Contact Using Design of Experiment GN Nehme Tribology Transactions Volume 54, Issue 4, 2011 Paper # 819 The Effect of FeF3/TiF3 catalysts on the thermal and tribological performance of plain oil ZDDP under extreme pressure loading G Nehme Wear – Accepted for Publication 2011 Paper # 820 Dry sliding wear behaviour of powder metallurgy Al-Mg-Si alloy-MoSi2 composites and the relationship with the microstructure J Corrochano, JC Walker, M Lieblich, J Ibáñez Wear Volume 270, Issues 9-10, 4 April 2011, Pages 658-665 Paper # 827 Interactions of fluorinated catalyst and polutetrafluoroethylene in two different plain zinc dialkyldithiophosphate oils and one fully formulated oil using design of Experiment G Nehme Lubrication Science Volume 23, Issue 4, pages 181–201, June 2011 Paper # 861 Effect of Extreme Load on Plain ZDDP Oil in the Presence of FeF3 Catalyst Using Design of Experiment and Fundamental Study under Two Different Rotational Speeds G Nehme Tribology Transactions Volume 55, Issue 6, 2012 Paper # 883 Tribological and Thermal Characteristics of Reduced phosphorus plain ZDDP oil in the Presence of PTFE/FeF3/TiF3 under Optimized Extreme Loading condition and a break in period using 2 different rotational speeds G Nehme Wear – Available online 3 December 2012 Paper # 890 Usability of Boron as an Alloying Element in Gray Cast Iron Rollers and its Effect to Abrasive Wear Behaviour C Meran, M Yuksel Advanced Materials Research (Volume 445) January 2012 Paper # 911 Analysis of fluorinated interactions in plain ZDDP and fully formulated oils using design of xperiment (DOE) and chemistry characterization of tribofilms in boundary lubrication under extreme loading conditions G Nehme Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, 2013 Paper # 912 Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Nanostructured WC–Co Coatings G Di Girolamo, F Marra, L Pilloni, G Pulci International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology Volume 10, Issue 1, pages 60–71, January/February 2013 Paper # 913 Subsurface modifications in powder metallurgy aluminium alloy composites reinforced with intermetallic MoS2 particles under dry sliding wear M Lieblich, J Corrochano, J Ibáñez, V Vadillo Wear Volume 309, Issues 1–2, 15 January 2014, Pages 126–133 Paper # 997 Optimization of Extreme Load and Break-in Period in Plain ZDDP Oil with FeF3 Catalyst Using Design of Experiment and Fundamental Study under Different Speeds GN Nehme, M Dib Tribology Transactions, 2014, Taylor & Francis Paper # 1007 Wear modelling in rail–wheel contact Ramalho A Wear Volumes 330–331, May–June 2015, Pages 524–532 Paper # 1015 Effect of extreme contact load under two different rotational speeds on reduced phosphorus plain ZDDP oil in the presence of 1?per?cent FeF3 catalyst G Nehme Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, August 2011; vol. 225, 8: pp. 833-844 Paper # 1019 Effects of Sliding Speed in a CuZn10 Brass Material on Wear M Bagci, H Imrek researchgate.net Paper # 1040 The effect of particle concentration in a magneto rheological suspension on the performance of a boundary lubricated contact W. C. Leung, W. A. Bullough, P. L. Wong and C Feng Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, April 1, 2004; vol. 218, 4: pp. 251-264 Paper # 1098 Análise do desgaste abrasivo de peças agrícolas revestidas por diferentes processos de soldagem R Missio dspace.unipampa.edu.br Paper # 1103 Caracterização, tratamento e aproveitamento das cinzas da casca do arroz em processos produtivos do ramo industrial AC Steffen¹, J Schmidt, G Menin, M Paulo, FK Stracke santoangelo.uri.br Paper # 1138 Optimization of Mechanism of Boundary Lubrication in Fully Formulated Commercial Engine Oil Using Design of Experiment GN Nehme, M Dib Tribology & Lubrication Technology – Volume 73 Issue 8 August 2017 Paper # 1153 Wear and friction behaviour of high-speed steel and indefinite chill material for rolling ferritic stainless steels L Hao, H Wu, D Wei, X Cheng, J Zhao, S Luo, L Jiang Wear – Volumes 376–377, Part B, 15 April 2017, Pages 1580-1585 Paper # 1162 Caracterização, tratamento e utilização da cinza da casca de arroz na produção de tinta/Characterization, treatment and use of rice hullash in the production of paint MP Stracke, F Kieckow, J Schmidt Brazilian Applied Science Review v. 2, n. 1 (2018) Paper # 1163 Estudo tribológico do revestimento de Stellite 6, Aspergido por HVOF antes e após polimento, e do substrato de aço inoxidável AISI 304 PHE Rodrigues 2018 – dspace.unipampa.edu.br Paper # 1225 The Effect of Coatings on the Wear Behavior of Ti6Al4V Alloy Used in Biomedical Applications Ş. Danışman, D Odabas, M Teber – IOP Conference Series IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 295, conference 1 Paper # 1240 Wear behavior of various dental restorative materials MS Zafar Materials Technology – Advanced Performance Materials Volume 34, 2019 – Issue 1 Paper # 1256 Wear behavior of various dental restorative materials MS Zafar Materials Technology, 2019 – Taylor & Francis Paper # 1312 Avaliação da resistência ao desgaste e tenacidade do aço AISI M2 com tratamento criogênico LFS Leonardi 2019 – 22.214.171.124 Paper # 1313 Efeitos do Processo de Refusão a Laser na Microestrutura e No Comportamento de Desgaste do Revestimento de WC Aspergido com HVOF RC Panziera, ACC Oliveira Matéria (Rio de Janeiro), 2019 – SciELO Brasil Paper # 1314 INFLUÊNCIA DA VELOCIDADE DE RESFRIAMENTO NO AÇO ABNT M2 SUBMETIDO AO TRATAMENTO CRIOGÊNICO D do Amaral Mengotti, DG Fantineli Anais do Salão, 2019 Paper # 1315 Tribological and high-temperature mechanical characterization of cold sprayed and PTA-deposited Stellite coatings L Baiamonte, M Tului, C Bartuli, D Marini Surface and Coatings, 2019 – Elsevier Paper #1349 Investigation of Tribological Properties of Rail and Wheel Steels F Bozkurt, Ü Er Metal Science and Heat Treatment – 2020 – Springer
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