TE 66 MICRO-SCALE ABRASION TESTER

 




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    Background

    The Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester is based on an experimental technique developed by I M Hutchings and K L Rutherford of Cambridge University Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy and is manufactured by Phoenix Tribology under licence.

    The TE 66 may be used to determine the wear coefficient of hard and soft coatings and monolithic materials by abrasive wear in a ball on plate contact configuration. The machine may also be used as a crater-generating tool on coated surfaces for coating thickness determination.

    The TE 66 may be used for tests in accordance with BS EN 1071-6: 2007: Advanced technical ceramics. Methods of test for ceramic coatings. Determination of the abrasion resistance of coatings by a micro-abrasion wear test.

    Description

    The rotation of a ball against a coated plate in the presence of an abrasive slurry results in the production of a circular depression. Eventually the coating is worn through and a “bulls-eye” depression is seen where the substrate shows through. Measurements of the inner and outer diameters of this bulls-eye are easily made and provide an accurate and low cost method of determining coating thickness. This is an established coating thickness measurement technique.

    In order to use this configuration for wear coefficient determination it is necessary to measure precisely ball rotational speed, applied load and number of rotations completed (for sliding distance determination). The aim of such a test is to measure progressive wear over an extended number of cycles and thus determine wear rates and wear coefficients of the material (and coating).

    The progressive measurement of wear by interrupting the test for microscopic observation is cumbersome and results in errors in replacing the specimens.

    Other ball-cratering devices use a free ball that rests on the coated surface and at two points on a rotating shaft. The static load on the surface is determined by the size of the ball and the tilt angle of the coated surface. The ball is driven by friction against the shaft and abrasive slurry is fed into the wearing contact. Since the ball is free and the friction conditions variable, the rotational speed, number of rotations and applied load are both uncertain.

    In the TE 66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester the ball is fixed into the rotating shaft and the test surface is mounted on a counterbalanced beam that hangs vertically from a pivot. This configuration offers the following advantages over the free ball:

    1. The load can be defined precisely without interaction with the friction force.
    2. A wide range of loads can be applied precisely and repeatably, without the need for variable ball sizes.
    3. The rotational speed of the ball and the number of cycles completed can be measured precisely.
    4. Means can be provided for continuous measurement of the relative displacement of the specimens to indicate wear.

    A 25 mm ball is clamped between two coaxial shafts each carried in support bearings. One shaft is driven by a variable speed dc geared motor. A batch counter is provided to measure and control the number of shaft revolutions.

    The test sample is clamped onto a platform on a vertical beam. The beam is in balance when the samples are just in contact and the load is applied by adding dead weights to a cantilever arm.

    Slurry is stored in a container that can be agitated on a laboratory magnetic stirrer (available as option TE 66/S). ). A peristaltic pump is provided for pumping the slurry into the contact. It is fed to a position just above the contact point and collected in a waste tray underneath.

    TE 66/M Wear Measuring Microscope

    The optional digital microscope is used to view the contact crater in situ and make measurements of the wear scar width. The crater is viewed by rotating the load arm to bring the sample out of contact with the ball, thus avoiding disturbance to the contact by removal of the ball.

    The use of the TE 66/M is strongly recommended for all TE 66 installations. The reporting of wear scar measurements is considered an essential part of the use of the ball-cratering test. The TE 66 is provided with the necessary support for the TE 66/M to view the test plate mounted on the loading beam.

    TE 66/S Laboratory Magnetic Stirrer

    Slurry is stored in a container that is agitated on the laboratory magnetic stirrer. The slurry is pumped by the integral peristaltic pump on the TE 66. It is fed to a position just above the contact point and collected in a waste tray underneath. 3 metres of pump tubing is provided with the TE 66/S.

    TE 66SLIM Option

    The TE 66SLIM version incorporates a PLINT Serial Link Interface Module and Windows based COMPEND 2000 data logging and speed control software. When the TE 66/WEAR, TE 66/F and TE 66/E are fitted, the outputs are linked to the interface to permit continuous recording of revolutions, gap reading, friction force and contact resistance.

    TE 66/W On-Line Wear Monitor

    This non-contacting displacement transducer may be used to monitor the position of the beam relative the ball axis during a test. Wear depth and wear rates may be determined from this measurement. The use of the TE 66/W system is recommended only for tests where the coating or substrate will be wearing more than 10 µm.

    TE 66/F Friction Force Measuring System for Adhesion Testing

    This adapter is in the form of a modified specimen load beam incorporating a strain gauge force transducer for friction force measurement.

    TE 66/E Electrical Insulation and Slip Ring

    The adapter incorporates electrical isolation of the specimen mounting and the provision of an electrical slip ring on the ball drive shaft. This may be used either in conjunction with a simple electrical resistance circuit, for detection of break-through on non-conducting coatings, or in conjunction with a potentiostat for electro-chemical measurement in processes involving combined abrasion and corrosion.

    TE 66/LC Line Contact Adapter

    This item of tooling allows tests to be run with a line contact specimen in a non-conforming block on ring configuration. The tooling allows a disc specimen to be mounted in place of the standard ball specimen.

    TE 66 Multi-station Option

    In addition to the standard single station tester, multi-station units can be assembled, incorporating a single drive motor and control system and multiple test assemblies. This is an economical way of increasing testing capacity without increasing the number of testers required.

     

     



  • Technical Specifications

    Technical Specifications
    Ball Speed Range: 30 to 150 rpm
    Load Range: 0.05 to 5 N
    Ball Diameter: 25 mm
    Pump Feed Rate: up to 60 ml/hour
    TE 66/M Wear Measuring Microscope
    Digital Camera: 5MP CMOS USB
    Magnification x3 and x5
    TE 66/W On-Line Wear Monitor
    Displacement Range: 0 to 1 mm
    Resolution: 0.2 µm
    Accuracy: within 3 %
    Output Range: 1 V = 100 µm
    TE 66/F Friction Force Measuring System
    Friction Force Range: 0 – 10 N
    TE 66/LC Line Contact Adapter
    Disc Diameter: 25 mm
    Disc Width: Up to 10 mm
    Services
    Electricity: 220/240V, single phase, 50 Hz, 120 W
    110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 120 W
    Installation
    Bench-mounting machine: 720 mm x 440 mm x 570 mm high, 15 kg
    Bench-mounting cabinet: 530 mm x 420 mm x 320 mm high, 10 kg
    Packing specifications: 0.21 m3, GW 50 kg, NW 25 kg



  • Publications

     

    Paper # 89 Theory and Application of a Micro-Scale Abrasive Wear Test
    Rutherford K L, Hutchings I M,
    Journal of Testing and Evaluation, JTEVA, 25(2), March 1997, 250-260.
    Paper # 120 The Effects of Irradiation and Aging on the Abrasive Wear Resistance of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene
    Choudhury M, Hutchings I M,
    Wear 203-204, 1997, 335-340.
    Paper # 124 The Abrasive and Erosive Wear of Polymeric Paint Films
    Rutherford K L, Trezona R I, Ramamurthy A C, Hutchings I M,
    Wear 203-204, 1997, 325-334.
    Paper # 125 A New Technique for Determining the Micro-Scale Abrasion Resistance of Automotive Clearcoats
    Trezona R I, Hutchings I M, Ramamurthy A C,
    97PA018, Proc. ISATA Conference on Paint and Powder Coating Applications in the Automotive Industry, Florence, 1997.
    Paper # 126 The Effects of Ball Surface Condition in the Micro-Scale Abrasive Wear Test
    Allsopp D N, Trezona R I, Hutchings I M,
    Tribology Letters, 5, 1998, 259-264.
    Paper # 127 Novel Methods for Characterizing the Mechanical Durability of Automotive Paint Systems
    Pickles M J, Trezona R I, Hutchings I M, Ramamurthy A C, Freese J W,
    SAE 980977, Presented at the SAE International Congress, Detroit, February 1998.
    Paper # 128 The Role of Test Conditions on the Micro-Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Soda-Lime Glass
    Shipway P H,
    Paper No. 11, International Conference on Erosive and Abrasive Wear (ICEAW), Cambridge, September 1998.
    Paper # 130 Three-Body Abrasive Wear of Soft Materials
    Trezona R I, Hutchings I M,
    Paper No. 114, International Conference on Erosive and Abrasive Wear (ICEAW), Cambridge, September 1998.
    Paper # 131 Abrasive Wear Behaviour of an Al2O3-Al Co-Continuous Composite
    Imbeni V, Hutchings I M, Breslin M C,
    Paper No. 133, International Conference on Erosive and Abrasive Wear (ICEAW), Cambridge, September 1998.
    Paper # 132 Transitions Between Two-Body and Three-Body Abrasive Wear: Influence of Test Conditions in the Micro-Scale Abrasive Wear Test
    Allsopp D N, Trezona R I, Hutchings I M,
    Wear of Materials Conference, April 1999, to be published in Wear.
    Paper # 135 Wear Testing Methods and Their Relevance to Industrial Wear Problems
    Gee M G, Owen-Jones S,
    NPL (National Physical Laboratory) Report CMMT (A)92, December 1997.
    Paper # 136 Ball Cratering for the Measurement of Coating Wear
    Gee M G, Gant A,
    NPL (National Physical Laboratory) Report CMMT (D)162, October 1998.
    Paper # 149 Transitions Between Two-Body and Three-Body Abrasive Wear: Influence of Test Conditions in the Microscale Abrasive Wear Test
    Trezona R I, Allsopp D N, Hutchings I M,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 205-214.
    Paper # 150 Three-Body Abrasive Wear Testing of Soft Materials
    Trezona R I, Hutchings I M,
    Presented at 21st IRG-OECD Meeting, Amsterdam, April 1999. To be published in Wear.
    Paper # 272 Ball Crater Testing for the Dry Unlubricated Wear Testing of Wear Resistant Coatings.
    Gee M G, Wicks M,
    Surface Coating Technology, October 2000.
    Paper # 288 A New Method for Measurement of Particle Abrasivity
    Kelly D A, Hutchings I M,
    Wear 250 (2001) 76-80.
    Paper # 291 Abrasive Wear Resistance of Plasma-sprayed Tungsten Carbide-cobalt Coatings.
    Chen H., Hutchings I. M.,
    Surface and Coatings Technology 107 (1998) 106-114,
    Paper # 293 Three-body Abrasive Wear Testing of Soft Materials.
    Trezona R. I, Hutchings I. M.,
    Wear 233-235 (1999) 209-221,
    Paper # 295 Abrasive Wear Behaviour of an Alumina-aluminium Co-continuous Composite.
    Imbeni V Hutchings I. M., Breslin M. C.,
    Wear 233-235 (1999) 462-467,
    Paper # 296 Comments on Micro-scale Abrasive Wear Testing of PVD Coatings on Curved Substrates.
    Allsopp D. N., Hutchings I. M., Trezona R. I.,
    Tribology Letters 7 (1999) 229-231,
    Paper # 299 Applications of the Micro-scale Abrasion Test for Coatings and Bulk Materials.
    Hutchings I. M.,
    D. Dowson, C. M. Taylor, M. Priest (eds.), Proc. 26th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Elsevier Tribology Series, 2000, pp. 37-42 ,
    Paper # 300 Effect of Weathering on the Mechanical Durability of Automotive Clearcoats.
    Trezona R. I., Hutchings I. M., Weakley A. P.,
    Surface Coatings International, 83 (2000) 588-587,
    Paper # 312 Development and Validation of Test Methods for Thin Hard Coatings (FASTE).
    Vetters H, Meneve J, Jennett N M, Gee M G, von Stebut J, Kelly P,
    SMT Contract MAT1-CT 9400045, April 1998.
    Paper # 316 Scratch Testing and Fine Scale Abrasion Testing of Hardmetals and Ceramics.
    Gee M G, Gant A, Van den Berg L,
    NPL Report CMMT(A)175, May 1999.
    Paper # 320 Procedure for Ball Cratering Test.
    Gee M G,
    NPL Report MATC(A)52, June 2000, updated March 2001.
    Paper # 325 Microabrasion of Glass – The Critical Role of Ridge Formation
    Shipway P H, Hodge C J B,
    Wear 237 (2000) 90-97
    Paper # 326 The Role of Test Conditions on Microabrasive Wear Behaviour of Soda-lime Glass
    Shipway PH
    Wear 233-235 (1999) 191-199
    Paper # 328 Some thoughts on neural network modelling of microabrasion–corrosion processes
    P Srinivasa Pai, MT Mathew, MM Stack, LA Rocha
    Wear Volume 41, Issue 7, July 2008, p. 672-681
    Paper # 336 Micro-abrasion–corrosion of cast CoCrMo—Effects of micron and sub-micron sized abrasives
    D Sun, JA Wharton, RJK Wood
    Wear Volume 267, Issues 1-4, 15 June 2009, p. 52-60
    Paper # 345 Micro-abrasive Wear of Semi-crystalline Polymers
    Mergler Y J, Huis in t’ Veld A J,
    Proceedings 29th Leeds-Lyon Symposium
    Paper # 346 Review of Ball Cratering or Micro-abrasion Wear Testing of Coatings
    M G Gee, A Gant, I Hutchings, R Bethke, K Schiffmann, K Van Acker, S Poulat, Y Gachon,
    NPL Report MATC(A)62 October 2001
    Paper # 348 Micro-Abrasion of Steels: Some Thoughts on the Construction of Micro-Abrasion Maps
    Stack M M, Mathew M,
    Dublin Tribology Conference – September 2002
    Paper # 351 Critical Evaluation of Abrasion and Wear Testing of Coatings by Ball Cratering
    Gee M G,
    NPL Report MATC(D)03
    Paper # 366 Wear-mode Mapping for the Micro-scale Abrasion Test
    Adachi K and Hutchings I M,
    Wear 255 (2003) 23 – 29
    Paper # 370 Progress towards Standardisation of Ball Cratering
    Gee M G, Gant A, Hutchings I, Bethke R, Schiffman K, Van Acker K, Poulat S, Gachon Y, von Stebut J,
    Wear 255 (2003) 1 – 13
    Paper # 371 Micro-abrasion Transitions of Metallic Materials
    Stack M M, Mathew M,
    Wear 255 (2003) 14 – 22
    Paper # 380 Microscale Abrasive Wear of Polymeric Materials
    Shipway P H, Ngao N K,
    Wear 255 (2003) 742 – 750
    Paper # 381 Tribological Behaviour of CVD Diamond Films on Steel Substrates
    Silva F J G, Fernandes A J S, Costa F M, Teixeira V, Baptista A P M, Pereira E,
    Wear 255 (2003) 846 – 853
    Paper # 386 Study of Abrasive Resistance of Composites for Dental Restoration by Ball-cratering
    Vale Antunes P, Ramalho A,
    Wear 255 (2003) 990 – 998
    Paper # 388 Grooving Micro-abrasion of Polyamide 11 Coated Carbon Steel Tubulars for Downhole Application
    Bello J D, Wood R J K,
    Wear 255 (2003) 1157 – 1167
    Paper # 408 Results from an interlaboratory exercise to validate the micro-scale abrasion test
    M G Gee, A J Gant, I M Hutchings, Y Kusano, K Schiffman, K Van Acker, S Poulat, Y Gachon, J von Stebut, P Hatto and G Plint
    Wear 259 (2005) 27-35
    Paper # 422 Abrasive Wear of DLC/PVD Multilayer Coatings: AFM Studies
    C Martini, D Prandstraller, E Lanzoni, G Poli
    Tribotest Volume 10, Issue 3 , p. 241 – 250
    Paper # 423 Abrasive wear resistance of thin chromium nitride coatings measured by the ball crater test
    K Vercammen, Z Schauperi, V Ivusic, J Meneve
    NORDTRIB 2000: 9th Nordic Symposium on Tribology; Porvoo; Finland; 11-14 June 2000. pp. 469-470. 2000
    Paper # 427 An approach to elucidate the different response of PVD coatings in different tribological tests
    JCA Batista, C Godoy, G Pintaúde, A Sinatora, A Matthews
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volumes 174-175, September-October 2003, p. 891-898
    Paper # 432 Ball cratering an efficient tool for 3 body microabrasion of coated systems
    C Leroy, KI Schiffmann, K van Acker, J von Stebut
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 200, Issues 1-4, 1 October 2005, p. 153-156
    Paper # 433 Ball-cratering abrasion tests with large abrasive particles
    GB Stachowiak, GW Stachowiak, JM Brandt
    Tribology International Volume 39, Issue 1, January 2006, p. 1-11
    Paper # 473 Influence of load and speed on rolling micro-abrasion of CVD diamond and other hard coatings
    K Bose, RJK Wood
    Diamond and Related Materials Volume 12, Issues 3-7, March-July 2003, p. 753-756
    Paper # 484 Mapping the micro-abrasion resistance of WC/Co based coatings in aqueous conditions
    MM Stack, MT Mathew
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 183, Issues 2-3, 24 May 2004, p. 337-346
    Paper # 488 Methods of data analysis for the micro-scale abrasion test on coated substrates
    Y Kusano, K Van Acker, IM Hutchings
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 183, Issues 2-3, 24 May 2004, p. 312-327
    Paper # 489 Microabrasion- a simple method to assess surface degradation of UHMWPE following sterilisation and ageing
    FJ Buchanan, PH Shipway
    Biomaterials, Volume 23, Number 1, January 2002, pp. 93-100
    Paper # 490 Micro-abrasive wear of PVD duplex and single-layered coatings
    JCA Batista, A Matthews, C Godoy
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volumes 142-144, July 2001, p. 1137-1143
    Paper # 491 Micro-scale abrasive wear testing of CR-NX coatings
    S Lakel, K Almi, Y Berriche
    Romanian Reports in Physics, 2007
    Paper # 492 Micro-scale abrasive wear testing of duplex and non-duplex (single-layered) PVD (Ti, Al) N, TiN and Cr-N coatings
    JCA Batista, C Godoy, A Matthews
    Tribology International Volume 35, Issue 6 , June 2002, p. 363-372
    Paper # 501 On the construction of micro-abrasion maps for a steel/polymer couple in corrosive environments
    MM Stack, H Jawan, MT Mathew
    Tribology International Volume 38, Issue 9, September 2005, p. 848-856
    Paper # 511 Sliding and abrasive wear of composite sol–gel alumina coated Al alloys
    S Wilson, HM Hawthorne, Q Yang, T Troczynski
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volumes 133-134, November 2000, p. 389-396
    Paper # 517 Some views on micro-abrasion mechanisms for HVOF WC-Co based coatings
    MT Mathew, MM Stack
    2007
    Paper # 559 Tribological behaviour of ACD Ni-P/PVD nitride/dlc multilayered coatings
    E Lanzoni, C Martini, G Poli, D Prandstraller, L Nobili
    Tribotest Volume 12, Issue 1 , p. 29 – 46
    Paper # 562 Tribological behaviour of multi-layered PVD nitride coatings
    V Imbeni, C Martini, E Lanzoni, G Poli, IM Hutchings
    Wear Volume 251, Number 1, October 2001, pp. 997-1002
    Paper # 612 Synergistic effects of micro-abrasion–corrosion of UNS S30403, S31603 and S32760 stainless steels
    JO Bello, RJK Wood, JA Wharton,
    Wear Volume 263, Issues 1-6, 10 September 2007, p. 149-159
    Paper # 613 Exposure effects of alkaline drilling fluid on the microscale abrasion–corrosion of WC-based hardmetals
    MR Thakare, JA Wharton, RJK Wood, C Menger,
    Wear Volume 263, Issues 1-6, 10 September 2007, p. 125-136
    Paper # 614 Wear of bulk ceramics in micro-scale abrasion—The role of abrasive shape and hardness and its relevance to testing of ceramic coatings
    PH Shipway, JJ Hogg,
    Wear Volume 263, Issues 7-12, 10 September 2007, p. 887-895
    Paper # 646 Some thoughts on neural network modelling of microabrasion–corrosion processes
    P Srinivasa Pai, MT Mathew, MM Stack and LA Rocha
    Tribology International, Volume 41, Issue 7, July 2008, p. 672-681
    Paper # 647 Characterisation of ZrO2 layers deposited on Al2O3 coating
    Suzana Jakovljević, Willy Hendrix, Danny Havermans and Jan Meneve
    Wear Volume 266, Issues 3-4, 5 February 2009, Pages 417-423
    Paper # 648 Abrasive wear resistance of Ti1 − xAlxN hard coatings deposited by a vacuum arc system with lateral rotating cathodes
    Xing-zhao Ding, CT Bui and XT Zeng
    Surface and Coatings Technology, Volume 203, Issues 5-7, 25 December 2008, p. 680-684
    Paper # 649 Adhesion and abrasive wear resistance of TiN deposited on electrical discharge machined WC–Co cemented carbides
    B Casas, U Wiklund, S Hogmark and L Llanes
    Wear Volume 265, Issues 3-4, 31 July 2008, p. 490-496
    Paper # 650 Influence factors on wear resistance of two alumina matrix composites
    FC Zhang, HH Luo, TS Wang, SG Roberts and RI Todd
    Wear Volume 265, Issues 1-2, 25 June 2008, p. 27-33
    Paper # 651 Wear resistance of reaction sintered alumina/mullite composites
    HH Luo, FC Zhang and SG Roberts
    Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 478, Issues 1-2, 15 April 2008, p. 270-275
    Paper # 652 Micro-abrasion resistance of thermochemically treated steels in aqueous solutions: Mechanisms, maps, materials selection
    MT Mathew, MM Stack, B Matijevic, LA Rocha, and E Ariza
    Tribology International Volume 41, Issue 2, February 2008, p. 141-149
    Paper # 653 Exposure effects of strong alkaline conditions on the microscale abrasion–corrosion of D-gun sprayed WC–10Co–4Cr coating
    MR Thakare, JA Wharton, RJK Wood, C Menger,
    Tribology International, Volume 41, Issue 7, July 2008, p. 629-639
    Paper # 654 Microabrasion–corrosion of cast CoCrMo alloy in simulated body fluids
    D Sun, JA Wharton, RJK Wood, L Ma and WM Rainforth
    Tribology International, Volume 42, Issue 1, January 2009, p. 99-110
    Paper # 655 Stress state and fracture behavior of alumina–mullite intragranular particulate composites
    FC Zhang, HH Luo, TS Wang, M Zhang and YN Sun
    Composites Science and Technology, Volume 68, Issues 15-16, December 2008, p. 3245-3250
    Paper # 695 Micro-abrasion-corrosion of cast CoCrMo – effects of micron and sub-micron sized abrasives
    D Sun, JA Wharton, RJK Wood
    Wear of Materials 2009
    Paper # 696 The Improvement of Hard Facing Coatings For Ground Engaging Applications by the Addition of Tungsten Carbide
    AH Jones, P Roffey
    Wear Volume 267, Issues 5-8, 15 June 2009, p. 925-933
    Paper # 697 Influence of the abrasive particles size in the micro-abrasion wear tests of TiAlSiN thin coatings
    MFC Andrade, RP Martinho, FJG Silva, RJD Alexandre, APM Baptista
    Wear of Materials 2009
    Paper # 718 #REF!
    D Sun, JA Wharton, RJK Wood
    Wear Volume 42, Issues 11-12, December 2009, p. 1595-1604
    Paper # 735 Effects of proteins and pH on tribocorrosion performance of cast CoCrMo a combined electrochemical and tribological study
    D Sun, JA Wharton, RJK Wood
    Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 2, Number 3, September 2008, 150-160(11)
    Paper # 743 Abrasive wear resistance of electroless Ni-P coated aluminium after post treatment
    R Rajendran
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 205, Issue 3, 25 October 2010, p. 766-772
    Paper # 755 Electrodeposition and tribological characterisation of nickel nanocomposite coatings reinforced with nanotubular titanates
    CTJ Low, JO Bello, JA Wharton, RJK Wood
    Surface and Coatings 2010 Volume 205, Issue 7, p. 1856-1863
    Paper # 764 Improving sliding and abrasive wear behaviour of cast A356 and wrought AA7075 aluminium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation
    G Sabatini, L Ceschini, C Martini, JA Williams
    Materials & Design 2010 Volume 31, Issue 2, p. 816-828
    Paper # 767 Interpretation of electrochemical measurements made during micro-scale abrasion-corrosion
    RJK Wood, D Sun, MR Thakare
    Tribology International 2010 Volume 43, Issue 7, p. 1218-1227
    Paper # 770 Metal-doped (Ti, WC) diamond-like-carbon coatings: Reactions with extreme-pressure oil additives under tribological and static conditions
    M Kalin, E Roman, L Ozbolt
    Thin Solid Films 2010 Volume 518, Issue 15, p. 4336-4344
    Paper # 772 Micro-abrasion-corrosion of a Co-Cr/UHMWPE couple in Ringer’s solution: an approach to construction of mechanism and synergism maps for application to bio- …
    MM Stack, J Jirka, MT Mathew, H Jawan, W Huang
    Wear 2010 Volume 269, Issues 5-6, p. 376-382
    Paper # 773 Micro-Abrasion-Corrosion of Ti6Al4V Alloy in Simulated Artificial Hip Joint Environments
    W Huang, G Wang
    Advanced Tribology 2010 Part 3, VII, 1005-1010
    Paper # 780 Relationships between the fretting wear behavior and the ball cratering resistance of solid lubricant coatings
    DB Luo, V Fridrici
    Surface and Coatings Technology 2010 Volume 204, Issue 8, p. 1259-1269
    Paper # 781 Research on Micro-Abrasion Performances of TiN Coating in Simulated Body Fluid
    W Huang, G Wang
    Advanced Tribology 2010 Part 3, VII, p. 1000-1004,
    Paper # 784 Selecting solid lubricant coatings under fretting conditions
    DB Luo, V Fridrici
    Wear 2010 Volume 268, Issues 5-6, p. 816-827
    Paper # 790 The Effects of Protein and pH on the Tribo-Corrosion Performance of Cast CoCrMo—A Combined Electrochemical and Tribological Study
    D Sun, J A Wharton, R J K Wood
    Advanced Tribology 2010, Part 3, V, p. 825-826
    Paper # 793 Tribo-corrosion mechanisms of stainless steel in soft drinks
    C Hodge
    Wear 2010 Volume 270, Issues 1-2, p. 104-114
    Paper # 803 A review of micro-scale abrasion testing
    A J Gant, M G Gee
    J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44 (2011) 073001
    Paper # 806 Micro-abrasion-corrosion interactions of Ni-Cr/WC based coatings: approaches to construction of tribo-corrosion maps for the abrasion-corrosion synergism
    MM Stack, MT Mathew
    Electrochimica Acta Volume 56, Issue 24, 1 October 2011, Pages 8249-8259
    Paper # 809 TiB2 Nanostructured Coating for GFRP Injection Moulds
    RP Martinho, FJG Silva
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Volume 11, Number 6, June 2011 , pp. 5374-5382
    Paper # 814 Some views on the construction of bio-tribo-corrosion maps for a Titanium alloy in Hanks solution: particle concentration and applied loads effects
    MM Stack, W Huang, G Wang
    Tribology International 2011 Volume 44, Issue 12, November 2011, Pages 1827-1837
    Paper # 821 Abrasive wear behaviour of conventional and large-particle tungsten carbide-based cermet coatings as a function of abrasive size and type
    Z Kamdi, PH Shipway, KT Voisey
    Wear Volume 271, Issues 9-10, 29 July 2011, Pages 1264-1272
    Paper # 822 Influence of heat treatments on the micro-abrasion wear resistance of a superduplex stainless steel
    F Marques, WM da Silva, JM Pardal, SSM Tavares
    Wear Volume 271, Issues 9-10, 29 July 2011, Pages 1288-1294
    Paper # 824 Role of abrasive material on micro-abrasion wear tests
    FJG Silva, RB Casais, RP Martinho
    Wear Volume 271, Issues 9-10, 29 July 2011, Pages 2632-2639
    Paper # 867 Impact wear and abrasion resistance of CrN, AlCrN and AlTiN PVD coatings
    JL Mo, MH Zhu, A Leyland, A Matthews
    Surface and Coatings Technology – Available online 6 November 2012
    Paper # 872 Mapping the micro-abrasion resistance of a Ni-based coating deposited by PTA on gray cast iron
    F Fernandes, A Ramalho, A Loureiro, A Cavaleiro
    Wear Volumes 292–293, 15 July 2012, Pages 151–158
    Paper # 881 Surface modification of Ti–6Al–4V alloys using triode plasma oxidation treatments
    G Cassar, JC Wilson, S Banfield, J Housden
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 206, Issue 22, 25 June 2012, Pages 4553–4561
    Paper # 888 Triode plasma diffusion treatment of titanium alloys
    G Cassar, A Matthews, A Leyland
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 212, November 2012, Pages 20–31
    Paper # 895 Wear Modes of Resin Materials in Micro-scale Abrasion
    T Matsuda, K Sugiyama, H Yakuwa, and K Adachi
    World Tribology Congress 2013 Torino, Italy, September 8 – 13, 2013
    Paper # 914 Tribo-corrosion of stainless steel in artificial saliva: application to dental implants
    D Holmes, S Sharifi, MM Stack
    Tribology International, 2013
    Paper # 915 Tribo-corrosion of steel in artificial saliva: application to dental implants
    D Holmes, S Sharifi, MM Stack
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde
    Paper # 916 Microabrasion on dental restorative porcelains and amalgam
    A Peña, EA Gallardo, A Morán, JA Bravo
    Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 7, Number 2, June 2013, pp. 74-82(9)
    Paper # 917 A comparison of the tribological behaviour of Y-TZP in tea and coffee under micro-abrasion conditions
    S Sharifi, MM Stack
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde
    Paper # 918 Wear Resistance Performance of Thermally Sprayed AlTi Alloy Measured by Three Body Micro-Scale Abrasive Wear Test
    S Seth, AH Jones, OD Lewis
    Wear Volume 302, Issues 1–2, April–May 2013, Pages 972–980
    Paper # 919 Micro-abrasion study of some dental restorative materials and enamel
    A Peña, EA Gallardo, A Morán, JA Bravo
    Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology 227(5) 486–495
    Paper # 920 Characterization of laboratory and industrial CrN/CrCN/Diamond-like carbon coatings
    FJG Silva, RP Martinho, APM Baptista
    Thin Solid Films Volume 550, 1 January 2014, Pages 278–284
    Paper # 921 Study on Abrasion and Corrosion Resistance of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Implanted by Carbon in Hank’s Simulated Body Fluid
    CH Liang, QQ Yu, JL Li, NB Huang, Hui Yang
    Advanced Materials Research (Volume 773) Pages 412-416 September, 2013
    Paper # 922 A Modified Micro-Scale Abrasion for Large Hard Phase Cermet
    Z Kamdi, PH Shipway, KT Voisey
    Applied Mechanics and Materials (Volume 393)Pages 888-892 September, 2013
    Paper # 969 Bio-tribocorrosion mechanisms in orthopaedic devices: Mapping the micro-abrasion–corrosion behaviour of a simulated CoCrMo hip replacement in calf serum
    K Sadiq, RA Black, MM Stack
    Wear, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 973 Deep cryogenic treatment and CrN coating effects on micro-scale abrasion of aluminum alloy AA 6101-T4
    ES Ashiuchi, VF Steier, CRM Silva
    Advanced Materials Research, 2014, Trans Tech Publications
    Paper # 977 Effect of residual compressive surface stress on severe wear of alumina–silicon carbide two-layered composites
    CEJ Dancer, NA Yahya, T Berndt, RI Todd
    Tribology International, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 988 Influence of the normal force, abrasive slurry concentration and abrasive wear modes on the coefficient of friction in ball-cratering wear tests
    RC Cozza
    Tribology International, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 992 Micro-abrasion-corrosion maps of 316L stainless steel in artificial saliva
    A Hayes, S Sharifi, MM Stack
    Journal of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion, 2014,
    Paper # 993 Micro-Scale Abrasion of WC-Based Coatings with Different Abrasive Type
    Z Kamdi, PH Shipway, KT Voisey
    Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2014, Trans Tech Publ
    Paper # 994 Micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of medical implant material Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy on various friction pairs
    Z Wang, W Huang, Y Ma
    Materials Science and Engineering, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 995 Micro-scale wear characteristics of electroless Ni–P/SiC composite coating under two different sliding conditions
    M Franco, W Sha, S Malinov, H Liu
    Wear, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 1003 Tribo-corrosion of steel in artificial saliva
    D Holmes, S Sharifi, MM Stack
    Tribology International, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 1012 Construção de um equipamento de ensaio de desgaste micro abrasivo por esfera rotativa fixa para análise do desgaste em revestimento duro aplicado por soldagem
    DL Oliveira
    2015 repositorio.unesp.br
    Paper # 1013 Efeito da distribuição do tamanho das partículas abrasivas sobre as taxas e modos de desgaste para o ensaio de microabrasão
    VAO Gómez
    2015 repositorio.ufes.br
    Paper # 1014 Effect of abrasive particle size distribution on the wear rate and wear mode in micro-scale abrasive wear tests
    VAO Gomez, MCS de Macêdo, RM Souza, C Scandian
    Wear 2015
    Paper # 1026 Functionally graded ceramics by a new in situ processing route: Residual stress and wearresistance
    C Xu, RI Todd
    Journal of the European Ceramic Society 2015
    Paper # 1032 Micro-abrasive wear resistance of CoB/Co 2 B coatings formed in CoCrMo alloy
    GA Rodriguez-Castro, CD Reséndiz-Calderon
    Surface and Coatings Technology 2015
    Paper # 1042 Transitions in microabrasion mechanisms for WC-Co (HVOF) coated steel
    M M Stack and M T Mathew
    Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, January 1, 2005; vol. 219, 1: pp. 49-57
    Paper # 1045 Wear mapping of CoCrMo alloy in simulated bio-tribocorrosion conditions of a hip prosthesis bearing in calf serum solution
    K Sadiq, MM Stack, RA Black
    Materials Science and Engineering 2015
    Paper # 1057 Abrasive wear rate of boron carbide ceramics: Influence of microstructural and mechanical aspects on their tribological response
    BM Moshtaghioun, D Gomez-Garcia
    Journal of the European Ceramic Society; Volume 36, Issue 16, December 2016, Pages 3925-3928
    Paper # 1058 Comparison between PEEK and Ti6Al4V concerning micro-scale abrasion wear on dental applications
    M Sampaio, M Buciumeanu, B Henriques
    Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials; Volume 60, July 2016, Pages 212-219
    Paper # 1061 Wear study of Innovative Ti-Ta alloys
    TLM Morgado, H Navas, R Brites
    Procedia Structural Integrity; Volume 2, 2016, Pages 1266-1276
    Paper # 1072 Abrasive and sliding wear of resin composites for dental restorations
    JCM Souza, AC Bentes, K Reis, S Gavinha
    Tribology International; Volume 102, October 2016, Pages 154-160
    Paper # 1083 Análise do comportamento do coeficiente de desgaste nas diferentes camadas dos Dentes de Resina Acrílica
    PN Uehara
    USP Brazil Libraries; Theses and Dissertations 2016
    Paper # 1085 Abrasive wear resistance of WC–Co and WC–AISI 304 composites by ball-cratering method
    LM Vilhena, CM Fernandes, E Soares, J Sacramento
    Wear; Volumes 346-347, 15 January 2016, Pages 99-107

     

     



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    Launched 1997

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