The Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester is based on an experimental technique developed by I M Hutchings and K L Rutherford of Cambridge University Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy and is manufactured by Phoenix Tribology under licence.
The TE 66 may be used to determine the wear coefficient of hard and soft coatings and monolithic materials by abrasive wear in a ball on plate contact configuration. The machine may also be used as a crater-generating tool on coated surfaces for coating thickness determination.
The TE 66 may be used for tests in accordance with BS EN 1071-6: 2007: Advanced technical ceramics. Methods of test for ceramic coatings. Determination of the abrasion resistance of coatings by a micro-abrasion wear test.
The rotation of a ball against a coated plate in the presence of an abrasive slurry results in the production of a circular depression. Eventually the coating is worn through and a “bulls-eye” depression is seen where the substrate shows through. Measurements of the inner and outer diameters of this bulls-eye are easily made and provide an accurate and low cost method of determining coating thickness. This is an established coating thickness measurement technique.
In order to use this configuration for wear coefficient determination it is necessary to measure precisely ball rotational speed, applied load and number of rotations completed (for sliding distance determination). The aim of such a test is to measure progressive wear over an extended number of cycles and thus determine wear rates and wear coefficients of the material (and coating).
The progressive measurement of wear by interrupting the test for microscopic observation is cumbersome and results in errors in replacing the specimens.
Other ball-cratering devices use a free ball that rests on the coated surface and at two points on a rotating shaft. The static load on the surface is determined by the size of the ball and the tilt angle of the coated surface. The ball is driven by friction against the shaft and abrasive slurry is fed into the wearing contact. Since the ball is free and the friction conditions variable, the rotational speed, number of rotations and applied load are both uncertain.
In the TE 66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester the ball is fixed into the rotating shaft and the test surface is mounted on a counterbalanced beam that hangs vertically from a pivot. This configuration offers the following advantages over the free ball:
- The load can be defined precisely without interaction with the friction force.
- A wide range of loads can be applied precisely and repeatably, without the need for variable ball sizes.
- The rotational speed of the ball and the number of cycles completed can be measured precisely.
- Means can be provided for continuous measurement of the relative displacement of the specimens to indicate wear.
A 25 mm ball is clamped between two coaxial shafts each carried in support bearings. One shaft is driven by a variable speed dc geared motor. A batch counter is provided to measure and control the number of shaft revolutions.
Slurry is stored in a container that can be agitated on a laboratory magnetic stirrer (available as option TE 66/S). ). A peristaltic pump is provided for pumping the slurry into the contact. It is fed to a position just above the contact point and collected in a waste tray underneath.
Control and Data Acquisition
Speed set-point control is manual, implemented via a PLC, with input via touch-screen. When the TE 66/W, TE 66/F and TE 66/E options are fitted, the output data is recorded at 1 Hz sampling rate, stored by the PLC and exported on USB stick, for post-processing.
TE 66/DM Wear Measuring Microscope
The optional digital microscope is used to view the contact crater in situ and make measurements of the wear scar width. The crater is viewed by rotating the load arm to bring the sample out of contact with the ball, thus avoiding disturbance to the contact by removal of the ball.
TE 66/S Laboratory Magnetic Stirrer
Slurry is stored in a container that is agitated on the laboratory magnetic stirrer. The slurry is pumped by the integral peristaltic pump on the TE 66. It is fed to a position just above the contact point and collected in a waste tray underneath. 3 metres of pump tubing is provided with the TE 66/S.
TE 66/W On-Line Wear Monitor
TE 66/F Friction Measuring System for Adhesion Testing
This adapter is in the form of a modified specimen load beam incorporating a strain gauge force transducer for friction force measurement.
TE 66/E Electrical Insulation and Slip Ring
The adapter incorporates electrical isolation of the specimen mounting and the provision of an electrical slip ring on the ball drive shaft. This may be used either in conjunction with a simple electrical resistance circuit, for detection of break-through on non-conducting coatings, or in conjunction with a potentiostat for electro-chemical measurement in processes involving combined abrasion and corrosion.
TE 66/LC Line Contact Adapter
This item of tooling allows tests to be run with a line contact specimen in a non-conforming block on ring configuration. The tooling allows a disc specimen to be mounted in place of the standard ball specimen.
TE 66 Multi-station Option
Ball Speed Range: 30 to 150 rpm Load Range: 0.05 to 5 N Ball Diameter: 25 mm Pump Feed Rate: up to 60 ml/hour User Interface: PLC with touch-screen Data Acquisition Rate: 1 Hz Data Export: USB stick TE 66/DM Wear Measuring Microscope Digital Camera: 5MP CMOS USB Camera Magnification: x3 and x5 TE 66/W On-Line Wear Monitor Displacement Range: 0 to 1 mm Resolution: 0.2 µm Accuracy: within 3 % Output Range: 1 V = 100 µm TE 66/F Friction Force Measuring System Friction Force Range: 0 – 10 N TE 66/LC Line Contact Adapter Disc Diameter: 25 mm Disc Width: Up to 10 mm Services Electricity: 220/240V, single phase, 50 Hz, 120 W 110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 120 W Installation Bench-mounting machine: 720 mm x 440 mm x 570 mm high, 15 kg Bench-mounting cabinet: 530 mm x 420 mm x 320 mm high, 10 kg Packing specifications: 0.21 m3, GW 50 kg, NW 25 kg
abrasion resistance abrasive wear ball cratering test brittle materials coatings dental materials micro-scale abrasion paint films slurry abrasion three body abrasion wear by hard particles
Paper # 89 Theory and Application of a Micro-Scale Abrasive Wear Test Rutherford K L, Hutchings I M, Journal of Testing and Evaluation, JTEVA, 25(2), March 1997, 250-260. Paper # 120 The Effects of Irradiation and Aging on the Abrasive Wear Resistance of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Choudhury M, Hutchings I M, Wear 203-204, 1997, 335-340. Paper # 124 The Abrasive and Erosive Wear of Polymeric Paint Films Rutherford K L, Trezona R I, Ramamurthy A C, Hutchings I M, Wear 203-204, 1997, 325-334. Paper # 125 A New Technique for Determining the Micro-Scale Abrasion Resistance of Automotive Clearcoats Trezona R I, Hutchings I M, Ramamurthy A C, 97PA018, Proc. ISATA Conference on Paint and Powder Coating Applications in the Automotive Industry, Florence, 1997. Paper # 126 The Effects of Ball Surface Condition in the Micro-Scale Abrasive Wear Test Allsopp D N, Trezona R I, Hutchings I M, Tribology Letters, 5, 1998, 259-264. Paper # 127 Novel Methods for Characterizing the Mechanical Durability of Automotive Paint Systems Pickles M J, Trezona R I, Hutchings I M, Ramamurthy A C, Freese J W, SAE 980977, Presented at the SAE International Congress, Detroit, February 1998. Paper # 128 The Role of Test Conditions on the Micro-Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Soda-Lime Glass Shipway P H, Paper No. 11, International Conference on Erosive and Abrasive Wear (ICEAW), Cambridge, September 1998. Paper # 130 Three-Body Abrasive Wear of Soft Materials Trezona R I, Hutchings I M, Paper No. 114, International Conference on Erosive and Abrasive Wear (ICEAW), Cambridge, September 1998. Paper # 131 Abrasive Wear Behaviour of an Al2O3-Al Co-Continuous Composite Imbeni V, Hutchings I M, Breslin M C, Paper No. 133, International Conference on Erosive and Abrasive Wear (ICEAW), Cambridge, September 1998. Paper # 132 Transitions Between Two-Body and Three-Body Abrasive Wear: Influence of Test Conditions in the Micro-Scale Abrasive Wear Test Allsopp D N, Trezona R I, Hutchings I M, Wear of Materials Conference, April 1999, to be published in Wear. Paper # 135 Wear Testing Methods and Their Relevance to Industrial Wear Problems Gee M G, Owen-Jones S, NPL (National Physical Laboratory) Report CMMT (A)92, December 1997. Paper # 136 Ball Cratering for the Measurement of Coating Wear Gee M G, Gant A, NPL (National Physical Laboratory) Report CMMT (D)162, October 1998. Paper # 149 Transitions Between Two-Body and Three-Body Abrasive Wear: Influence of Test Conditions in the Microscale Abrasive Wear Test Trezona R I, Allsopp D N, Hutchings I M, Wear 225-229 (1999), 205-214. Paper # 150 Three-Body Abrasive Wear Testing of Soft Materials Trezona R I, Hutchings I M, Presented at 21st IRG-OECD Meeting, Amsterdam, April 1999. To be published in Wear. Paper # 272 Ball Crater Testing for the Dry Unlubricated Wear Testing of Wear Resistant Coatings. Gee M G, Wicks M, Surface Coating Technology, October 2000. Paper # 288 A New Method for Measurement of Particle Abrasivity Kelly D A, Hutchings I M, Wear 250 (2001) 76-80. Paper # 291 Abrasive Wear Resistance of Plasma-sprayed Tungsten Carbide-cobalt Coatings. Chen H., Hutchings I. M., Surface and Coatings Technology 107 (1998) 106-114, Paper # 293 Three-body Abrasive Wear Testing of Soft Materials. Trezona R. I, Hutchings I. M., Wear 233-235 (1999) 209-221, Paper # 295 Abrasive Wear Behaviour of an Alumina-aluminium Co-continuous Composite. Imbeni V Hutchings I. M., Breslin M. C., Wear 233-235 (1999) 462-467, Paper # 296 Comments on Micro-scale Abrasive Wear Testing of PVD Coatings on Curved Substrates. Allsopp D. N., Hutchings I. M., Trezona R. I., Tribology Letters 7 (1999) 229-231, Paper # 299 Applications of the Micro-scale Abrasion Test for Coatings and Bulk Materials. Hutchings I. M., D. Dowson, C. M. Taylor, M. Priest (eds.), Proc. 26th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Elsevier Tribology Series, 2000, pp. 37-42 , Paper # 300 Effect of Weathering on the Mechanical Durability of Automotive Clearcoats. Trezona R. I., Hutchings I. M., Weakley A. P., Surface Coatings International, 83 (2000) 588-587, Paper # 312 Development and Validation of Test Methods for Thin Hard Coatings (FASTE). Vetters H, Meneve J, Jennett N M, Gee M G, von Stebut J, Kelly P, SMT Contract MAT1-CT 9400045, April 1998. Paper # 316 Scratch Testing and Fine Scale Abrasion Testing of Hardmetals and Ceramics. Gee M G, Gant A, Van den Berg L, NPL Report CMMT(A)175, May 1999. Paper # 320 Procedure for Ball Cratering Test. Gee M G, NPL Report MATC(A)52, June 2000, updated March 2001. Paper # 325 Microabrasion of Glass – The Critical Role of Ridge Formation Shipway P H, Hodge C J B, Wear 237 (2000) 90-97 Paper # 326 The Role of Test Conditions on Microabrasive Wear Behaviour of Soda-lime Glass Shipway PH Wear 233-235 (1999) 191-199 Paper # 328 Some thoughts on neural network modelling of microabrasion–corrosion processes P Srinivasa Pai, MT Mathew, MM Stack, LA Rocha Wear Volume 41, Issue 7, July 2008, p. 672-681 Paper # 336 Micro-abrasion–corrosion of cast CoCrMo—Effects of micron and sub-micron sized abrasives D Sun, JA Wharton, RJK Wood Wear Volume 267, Issues 1-4, 15 June 2009, p. 52-60 Paper # 345 Micro-abrasive Wear of Semi-crystalline Polymers Mergler Y J, Huis in t’ Veld A J, Proceedings 29th Leeds-Lyon Symposium Paper # 346 Review of Ball Cratering or Micro-abrasion Wear Testing of Coatings M G Gee, A Gant, I Hutchings, R Bethke, K Schiffmann, K Van Acker, S Poulat, Y Gachon, NPL Report MATC(A)62 October 2001 Paper # 348 Micro-Abrasion of Steels: Some Thoughts on the Construction of Micro-Abrasion Maps Stack M M, Mathew M, Dublin Tribology Conference – September 2002 Paper # 351 Critical Evaluation of Abrasion and Wear Testing of Coatings by Ball Cratering Gee M G, NPL Report MATC(D)03 Paper # 366 Wear-mode Mapping for the Micro-scale Abrasion Test Adachi K and Hutchings I M, Wear 255 (2003) 23 – 29 Paper # 370 Progress towards Standardisation of Ball Cratering Gee M G, Gant A, Hutchings I, Bethke R, Schiffman K, Van Acker K, Poulat S, Gachon Y, von Stebut J, Wear 255 (2003) 1 – 13 Paper # 371 Micro-abrasion Transitions of Metallic Materials Stack M M, Mathew M, Wear 255 (2003) 14 – 22 Paper # 380 Microscale Abrasive Wear of Polymeric Materials Shipway P H, Ngao N K, Wear 255 (2003) 742 – 750 Paper # 381 Tribological Behaviour of CVD Diamond Films on Steel Substrates Silva F J G, Fernandes A J S, Costa F M, Teixeira V, Baptista A P M, Pereira E, Wear 255 (2003) 846 – 853 Paper # 386 Study of Abrasive Resistance of Composites for Dental Restoration by Ball-cratering Vale Antunes P, Ramalho A, Wear 255 (2003) 990 – 998 Paper # 388 Grooving Micro-abrasion of Polyamide 11 Coated Carbon Steel Tubulars for Downhole Application Bello J D, Wood R J K, Wear 255 (2003) 1157 – 1167 Paper # 408 Results from an interlaboratory exercise to validate the micro-scale abrasion test M G Gee, A J Gant, I M Hutchings, Y Kusano, K Schiffman, K Van Acker, S Poulat, Y Gachon, J von Stebut, P Hatto and G Plint Wear 259 (2005) 27-35 Paper # 422 Abrasive Wear of DLC/PVD Multilayer Coatings: AFM Studies C Martini, D Prandstraller, E Lanzoni, G Poli Tribotest Volume 10, Issue 3 , p. 241 – 250 Paper # 423 Abrasive wear resistance of thin chromium nitride coatings measured by the ball crater test K Vercammen, Z Schauperi, V Ivusic, J Meneve NORDTRIB 2000: 9th Nordic Symposium on Tribology; Porvoo; Finland; 11-14 June 2000. pp. 469-470. 2000 Paper # 427 An approach to elucidate the different response of PVD coatings in different tribological tests JCA Batista, C Godoy, G Pintaúde, A Sinatora, A Matthews Surface and Coatings Technology Volumes 174-175, September-October 2003, p. 891-898 Paper # 432 Ball cratering an efficient tool for 3 body microabrasion of coated systems C Leroy, KI Schiffmann, K van Acker, J von Stebut Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 200, Issues 1-4, 1 October 2005, p. 153-156 Paper # 433 Ball-cratering abrasion tests with large abrasive particles GB Stachowiak, GW Stachowiak, JM Brandt Tribology International Volume 39, Issue 1, January 2006, p. 1-11 Paper # 473 Influence of load and speed on rolling micro-abrasion of CVD diamond and other hard coatings K Bose, RJK Wood Diamond and Related Materials Volume 12, Issues 3-7, March-July 2003, p. 753-756 Paper # 484 Mapping the micro-abrasion resistance of WC/Co based coatings in aqueous conditions MM Stack, MT Mathew Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 183, Issues 2-3, 24 May 2004, p. 337-346 Paper # 488 Methods of data analysis for the micro-scale abrasion test on coated substrates Y Kusano, K Van Acker, IM Hutchings Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 183, Issues 2-3, 24 May 2004, p. 312-327 Paper # 489 Microabrasion- a simple method to assess surface degradation of UHMWPE following sterilisation and ageing FJ Buchanan, PH Shipway Biomaterials, Volume 23, Number 1, January 2002, pp. 93-100 Paper # 490 Micro-abrasive wear of PVD duplex and single-layered coatings JCA Batista, A Matthews, C Godoy Surface and Coatings Technology Volumes 142-144, July 2001, p. 1137-1143 Paper # 491 Micro-scale abrasive wear testing of CR-NX coatings S Lakel, K Almi, Y Berriche Romanian Reports in Physics, 2007 Paper # 492 Micro-scale abrasive wear testing of duplex and non-duplex (single-layered) PVD (Ti, Al) N, TiN and Cr-N coatings JCA Batista, C Godoy, A Matthews Tribology International Volume 35, Issue 6 , June 2002, p. 363-372 Paper # 501 On the construction of micro-abrasion maps for a steel/polymer couple in corrosive environments MM Stack, H Jawan, MT Mathew Tribology International Volume 38, Issue 9, September 2005, p. 848-856 Paper # 511 Sliding and abrasive wear of composite sol–gel alumina coated Al alloys S Wilson, HM Hawthorne, Q Yang, T Troczynski Surface and Coatings Technology Volumes 133-134, November 2000, p. 389-396 Paper # 517 Some views on micro-abrasion mechanisms for HVOF WC-Co based coatings MT Mathew, MM Stack 2007 Paper # 559 Tribological behaviour of ACD Ni-P/PVD nitride/dlc multilayered coatings E Lanzoni, C Martini, G Poli, D Prandstraller, L Nobili Tribotest Volume 12, Issue 1 , p. 29 – 46 Paper # 562 Tribological behaviour of multi-layered PVD nitride coatings V Imbeni, C Martini, E Lanzoni, G Poli, IM Hutchings Wear Volume 251, Number 1, October 2001, pp. 997-1002 Paper # 612 Synergistic effects of micro-abrasion–corrosion of UNS S30403, S31603 and S32760 stainless steels JO Bello, RJK Wood, JA Wharton, Wear Volume 263, Issues 1-6, 10 September 2007, p. 149-159 Paper # 613 Exposure effects of alkaline drilling fluid on the microscale abrasion–corrosion of WC-based hardmetals MR Thakare, JA Wharton, RJK Wood, C Menger, Wear Volume 263, Issues 1-6, 10 September 2007, p. 125-136 Paper # 614 Wear of bulk ceramics in micro-scale abrasion—The role of abrasive shape and hardness and its relevance to testing of ceramic coatings PH Shipway, JJ Hogg, Wear Volume 263, Issues 7-12, 10 September 2007, p. 887-895 Paper # 646 Some thoughts on neural network modelling of microabrasion–corrosion processes P Srinivasa Pai, MT Mathew, MM Stack and LA Rocha Tribology International, Volume 41, Issue 7, July 2008, p. 672-681 Paper # 647 Characterisation of ZrO2 layers deposited on Al2O3 coating Suzana Jakovljevi?, Willy Hendrix, Danny Havermans and Jan Meneve Wear Volume 266, Issues 3-4, 5 February 2009, Pages 417-423 Paper # 648 Abrasive wear resistance of Ti1 ? xAlxN hard coatings deposited by a vacuum arc system with lateral rotating cathodes Xing-zhao Ding, CT Bui and XT Zeng Surface and Coatings Technology, Volume 203, Issues 5-7, 25 December 2008, p. 680-684 Paper # 649 Adhesion and abrasive wear resistance of TiN deposited on electrical discharge machined WC–Co cemented carbides B Casas, U Wiklund, S Hogmark and L Llanes Wear Volume 265, Issues 3-4, 31 July 2008, p. 490-496 Paper # 650 Influence factors on wear resistance of two alumina matrix composites FC Zhang, HH Luo, TS Wang, SG Roberts and RI Todd Wear Volume 265, Issues 1-2, 25 June 2008, p. 27-33 Paper # 651 Wear resistance of reaction sintered alumina/mullite composites HH Luo, FC Zhang and SG Roberts Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 478, Issues 1-2, 15 April 2008, p. 270-275 Paper # 652 Micro-abrasion resistance of thermochemically treated steels in aqueous solutions: Mechanisms, maps, materials selection MT Mathew, MM Stack, B Matijevic, LA Rocha, and E Ariza Tribology International Volume 41, Issue 2, February 2008, p. 141-149 Paper # 653 Exposure effects of strong alkaline conditions on the microscale abrasion–corrosion of D-gun sprayed WC–10Co–4Cr coating MR Thakare, JA Wharton, RJK Wood, C Menger, Tribology International, Volume 41, Issue 7, July 2008, p. 629-639 Paper # 654 Microabrasion–corrosion of cast CoCrMo alloy in simulated body fluids D Sun, JA Wharton, RJK Wood, L Ma and WM Rainforth Tribology International, Volume 42, Issue 1, January 2009, p. 99-110 Paper # 655 Stress state and fracture behavior of alumina–mullite intragranular particulate composites FC Zhang, HH Luo, TS Wang, M Zhang and YN Sun Composites Science and Technology, Volume 68, Issues 15-16, December 2008, p. 3245-3250 Paper # 695 Micro-abrasion-corrosion of cast CoCrMo – effects of micron and sub-micron sized abrasives D Sun, JA Wharton, RJK Wood Wear of Materials 2009 Paper # 696 The Improvement of Hard Facing Coatings For Ground Engaging Applications by the Addition of Tungsten Carbide AH Jones, P Roffey Wear Volume 267, Issues 5-8, 15 June 2009, p. 925-933 Paper # 697 Influence of the abrasive particles size in the micro-abrasion wear tests of TiAlSiN thin coatings MFC Andrade, RP Martinho, FJG Silva, RJD Alexandre, APM Baptista Wear of Materials 2009 Paper # 718 #REF! D Sun, JA Wharton, RJK Wood Wear Volume 42, Issues 11-12, December 2009, p. 1595-1604 Paper # 735 Effects of proteins and pH on tribocorrosion performance of cast CoCrMo a combined electrochemical and tribological study D Sun, JA Wharton, RJK Wood Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 2, Number 3, September 2008, 150-160(11) Paper # 743 Abrasive wear resistance of electroless Ni-P coated aluminium after post treatment R Rajendran Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 205, Issue 3, 25 October 2010, p. 766-772 Paper # 755 Electrodeposition and tribological characterisation of nickel nanocomposite coatings reinforced with nanotubular titanates CTJ Low, JO Bello, JA Wharton, RJK Wood Surface and Coatings 2010 Volume 205, Issue 7, p. 1856-1863 Paper # 764 Improving sliding and abrasive wear behaviour of cast A356 and wrought AA7075 aluminium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation G Sabatini, L Ceschini, C Martini, JA Williams Materials & Design 2010 Volume 31, Issue 2, p. 816-828 Paper # 767 Interpretation of electrochemical measurements made during micro-scale abrasion-corrosion RJK Wood, D Sun, MR Thakare Tribology International 2010 Volume 43, Issue 7, p. 1218-1227 Paper # 770 Metal-doped (Ti, WC) diamond-like-carbon coatings: Reactions with extreme-pressure oil additives under tribological and static conditions M Kalin, E Roman, L Ozbolt Thin Solid Films 2010 Volume 518, Issue 15, p. 4336-4344 Paper # 772 Micro-abrasion-corrosion of a Co-Cr/UHMWPE couple in Ringer’s solution: an approach to construction of mechanism and synergism maps for application to bio- … MM Stack, J Jirka, MT Mathew, H Jawan, W Huang Wear 2010 Volume 269, Issues 5-6, p. 376-382 Paper # 773 Micro-Abrasion-Corrosion of Ti6Al4V Alloy in Simulated Artificial Hip Joint Environments W Huang, G Wang Advanced Tribology 2010 Part 3, VII, 1005-1010 Paper # 780 Relationships between the fretting wear behavior and the ball cratering resistance of solid lubricant coatings DB Luo, V Fridrici Surface and Coatings Technology 2010 Volume 204, Issue 8, p. 1259-1269 Paper # 781 Research on Micro-Abrasion Performances of TiN Coating in Simulated Body Fluid W Huang, G Wang Advanced Tribology 2010 Part 3, VII, p. 1000-1004, Paper # 784 Selecting solid lubricant coatings under fretting conditions DB Luo, V Fridrici Wear 2010 Volume 268, Issues 5-6, p. 816-827 Paper # 790 The Effects of Protein and pH on the Tribo-Corrosion Performance of Cast CoCrMo—A Combined Electrochemical and Tribological Study D Sun, J A Wharton, R J K Wood Advanced Tribology 2010, Part 3, V, p. 825-826 Paper # 793 Tribo-corrosion mechanisms of stainless steel in soft drinks C Hodge Wear 2010 Volume 270, Issues 1-2, p. 104-114 Paper # 803 A review of micro-scale abrasion testing A J Gant, M G Gee J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44 (2011) 073001 Paper # 806 Micro-abrasion-corrosion interactions of Ni-Cr/WC based coatings: approaches to construction of tribo-corrosion maps for the abrasion-corrosion synergism MM Stack, MT Mathew Electrochimica Acta Volume 56, Issue 24, 1 October 2011, Pages 8249-8259 Paper # 809 TiB2 Nanostructured Coating for GFRP Injection Moulds RP Martinho, FJG Silva Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Volume 11, Number 6, June 2011 , pp. 5374-5382 Paper # 814 Some views on the construction of bio-tribo-corrosion maps for a Titanium alloy in Hanks solution: particle concentration and applied loads effects MM Stack, W Huang, G Wang Tribology International 2011 Volume 44, Issue 12, November 2011, Pages 1827-1837 Paper # 821 Abrasive wear behaviour of conventional and large-particle tungsten carbide-based cermet coatings as a function of abrasive size and type Z Kamdi, PH Shipway, KT Voisey Wear Volume 271, Issues 9-10, 29 July 2011, Pages 1264-1272 Paper # 822 Influence of heat treatments on the micro-abrasion wear resistance of a superduplex stainless steel F Marques, WM da Silva, JM Pardal, SSM Tavares Wear Volume 271, Issues 9-10, 29 July 2011, Pages 1288-1294 Paper # 824 Role of abrasive material on micro-abrasion wear tests FJG Silva, RB Casais, RP Martinho Wear Volume 271, Issues 9-10, 29 July 2011, Pages 2632-2639 Paper # 867 Impact wear and abrasion resistance of CrN, AlCrN and AlTiN PVD coatings JL Mo, MH Zhu, A Leyland, A Matthews Surface and Coatings Technology – Available online 6 November 2012 Paper # 872 Mapping the micro-abrasion resistance of a Ni-based coating deposited by PTA on gray cast iron F Fernandes, A Ramalho, A Loureiro, A Cavaleiro Wear Volumes 292–293, 15 July 2012, Pages 151–158 Paper # 881 Surface modification of Ti–6Al–4V alloys using triode plasma oxidation treatments G Cassar, JC Wilson, S Banfield, J Housden Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 206, Issue 22, 25 June 2012, Pages 4553–4561 Paper # 888 Triode plasma diffusion treatment of titanium alloys G Cassar, A Matthews, A Leyland Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 212, November 2012, Pages 20–31 Paper # 895 Wear Modes of Resin Materials in Micro-scale Abrasion T Matsuda, K Sugiyama, H Yakuwa, and K Adachi World Tribology Congress 2013 Torino, Italy, September 8 – 13, 2013 Paper # 914 Tribo-corrosion of stainless steel in artificial saliva: application to dental implants D Holmes, S Sharifi, MM Stack Tribology International, 2013 Paper # 915 Tribo-corrosion of steel in artificial saliva: application to dental implants D Holmes, S Sharifi, MM Stack Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde Paper # 916 Microabrasion on dental restorative porcelains and amalgam A Peña, EA Gallardo, A Morán, JA Bravo Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 7, Number 2, June 2013, pp. 74-82(9) Paper # 917 A comparison of the tribological behaviour of Y-TZP in tea and coffee under micro-abrasion conditions S Sharifi, MM Stack Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde Paper # 918 Wear Resistance Performance of Thermally Sprayed AlTi Alloy Measured by Three Body Micro-Scale Abrasive Wear Test S Seth, AH Jones, OD Lewis Wear Volume 302, Issues 1–2, April–May 2013, Pages 972–980 Paper # 919 Micro-abrasion study of some dental restorative materials and enamel A Peña, EA Gallardo, A Morán, JA Bravo Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology 227(5) 486–495 Paper # 920 Characterization of laboratory and industrial CrN/CrCN/Diamond-like carbon coatings FJG Silva, RP Martinho, APM Baptista Thin Solid Films Volume 550, 1 January 2014, Pages 278–284 Paper # 921 Study on Abrasion and Corrosion Resistance of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Implanted by Carbon in Hank’s Simulated Body Fluid CH Liang, QQ Yu, JL Li, NB Huang, Hui Yang Advanced Materials Research (Volume 773) Pages 412-416 September, 2013 Paper # 922 A Modified Micro-Scale Abrasion for Large Hard Phase Cermet Z Kamdi, PH Shipway, KT Voisey Applied Mechanics and Materials (Volume 393)Pages 888-892 September, 2013 Paper # 969 Bio-tribocorrosion mechanisms in orthopaedic devices: Mapping the micro-abrasion–corrosion behaviour of a simulated CoCrMo hip replacement in calf serum K Sadiq, RA Black, MM Stack Wear, 2014, Elsevier Paper # 973 Deep cryogenic treatment and CrN coating effects on micro-scale abrasion of aluminum alloy AA 6101-T4 ES Ashiuchi, VF Steier, CRM Silva Advanced Materials Research, 2014, Trans Tech Publications Paper # 977 Effect of residual compressive surface stress on severe wear of alumina–silicon carbide two-layered composites CEJ Dancer, NA Yahya, T Berndt, RI Todd Tribology International, 2014, Elsevier Paper # 988 Influence of the normal force, abrasive slurry concentration and abrasive wear modes on the coefficient of friction in ball-cratering wear tests RC Cozza Tribology International, 2014, Elsevier Paper # 992 Micro-abrasion-corrosion maps of 316L stainless steel in artificial saliva A Hayes, S Sharifi, MM Stack Journal of Bio- and Tribo-Corrosion, 2014, Paper # 993 Micro-Scale Abrasion of WC-Based Coatings with Different Abrasive Type Z Kamdi, PH Shipway, KT Voisey Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2014, Trans Tech Publ Paper # 994 Micro-scale abrasive wear behavior of medical implant material Ti-25Nb-3Mo-3Zr-2Sn alloy on various friction pairs Z Wang, W Huang, Y Ma Materials Science and Engineering, 2014, Elsevier Paper # 995 Micro-scale wear characteristics of electroless Ni–P/SiC composite coating under two different sliding conditions M Franco, W Sha, S Malinov, H Liu Wear, 2014, Elsevier Paper # 1003 Tribo-corrosion of steel in artificial saliva D Holmes, S Sharifi, MM Stack Tribology International, 2014, Elsevier Paper # 1012 Construção de um equipamento de ensaio de desgaste micro abrasivo por esfera rotativa fixa para análise do desgaste em revestimento duro aplicado por soldagem DL Oliveira 2015 repositorio.unesp.br Paper # 1013 Efeito da distribuição do tamanho das partículas abrasivas sobre as taxas e modos de desgaste para o ensaio de microabrasão VAO Gómez 2015 repositorio.ufes.br Paper # 1014 Effect of abrasive particle size distribution on the wear rate and wear mode in micro-scale abrasive wear tests VAO Gomez, MCS de Macêdo, RM Souza, C Scandian Wear 2015 Paper # 1026 Functionally graded ceramics by a new in situ processing route: Residual stress and wearresistance C Xu, RI Todd Journal of the European Ceramic Society 2015 Paper # 1032 Micro-abrasive wear resistance of CoB/Co 2 B coatings formed in CoCrMo alloy GA Rodriguez-Castro, CD Reséndiz-Calderon Surface and Coatings Technology 2015 Paper # 1042 Transitions in microabrasion mechanisms for WC-Co (HVOF) coated steel M M Stack and M T Mathew Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, January 1, 2005; vol. 219, 1: pp. 49-57 Paper # 1045 Wear mapping of CoCrMo alloy in simulated bio-tribocorrosion conditions of a hip prosthesis bearing in calf serum solution K Sadiq, MM Stack, RA Black Materials Science and Engineering 2015 Paper # 1057 Abrasive wear rate of boron carbide ceramics: Influence of microstructural and mechanical aspects on their tribological response BM Moshtaghioun, D Gomez-Garcia Journal of the European Ceramic Society; Volume 36, Issue 16, December 2016, Pages 3925-3928 Paper # 1058 Comparison between PEEK and Ti6Al4V concerning micro-scale abrasion wear on dental applications M Sampaio, M Buciumeanu, B Henriques Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials; Volume 60, July 2016, Pages 212-219 Paper # 1061 Wear study of Innovative Ti-Ta alloys TLM Morgado, H Navas, R Brites Procedia Structural Integrity; Volume 2, 2016, Pages 1266-1276 Paper # 1072 Abrasive and sliding wear of resin composites for dental restorations JCM Souza, AC Bentes, K Reis, S Gavinha Tribology International; Volume 102, October 2016, Pages 154-160 Paper # 1083 Análise do comportamento do coeficiente de desgaste nas diferentes camadas dos Dentes de Resina Acrílica PN Uehara USP Brazil Libraries; Theses and Dissertations 2016 Paper # 1085 Abrasive wear resistance of WC–Co and WC–AISI 304 composites by ball-cratering method LM Vilhena, CM Fernandes, E Soares, J Sacramento Wear; Volumes 346-347, 15 January 2016, Pages 99-107 Paper # 1130 Microabrasion of three experimental cobalt-chromium alloys: Wear rates and wear mechanisms FP Marques, AC Bozzi, C Scandian, AP Tschiptschin Wear – Volumes 390–391, 15 November 2017, Pages 176-183 Paper # 1131 Micro-Abrasion Wear Resistance of Borided 316L Stainless Steel and AISI 1018 Steel CD Reséndiz-Calderon, GA Rodríguez-Castro Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance – November 2017, Volume 26, Issue 11, pp 5599–5609 Paper # 1132 Micro-abrasive wear mechanisms of borided AISI 1020 steel AP Krelling, CE da Costa, JCG Milan Tribology International – Volume 111, July 2017, Pages 234-242 Paper # 1133 Micro-abrasive wear mechanisms of P/M AISI M2 steel with different surface treatments EAS de Almeida, AP Krelling, JCG Milan Surface and Coatings Technology – Volume 333, 15 January 2018, Pages 238-246 Paper # 1134 Micro-scale abrasive wear of some sealing elastomers LI Farfán-Cabrera, EA Gallardo-Hernández Wear – Volumes 376–377, Part B, 15 April 2017, Pages 1347-1355 Paper # 1152 Wear and corrosion performance of Fe-based alloy coating on EN24 carbon steel MS Priyan, A Azad, GM Kumar nopr.niscair.res.in Paper # 1156 Wear evaluation of journal bearings using an adapted micro-scale abrasion tester LI Farfán-Cabrera, EA Gallardo-Hernández Wear – Volumes 376–377, Part B, 15 April 2017, Pages 1841-1848 Paper # 1207 Mechanical stability of boron-based coatings grown on Incoloy 909 superalloy by thermochemical diffusion MJ Gaona-Martínez, OF Alonso-Saavedra Surface Engineering Volume 34, 2018 – Issue 7 Paper # 1208 Microabrasive wear behavior of borided steel abraded by SiO2 particles AP Krelling, F Teixeira, CE da Costa Journal of Materials Research and Technology – Available online 24 July 2018 Paper # 1210 Microabrasive Wear of Titanium Chrome Plated CS Martín, VV María, VT Manuel Fracture, Fatigue and Wear 2018: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Fracture Fatigue and Wear pp 602-614 Paper # 1258 Effect of ball rotation speed on wear coefficient and particle behavior in micro-abrasive wear tests PJ Esteves, MCS de Macêdo, RM Souza, C Scandian Wear, 2019 – Elsevier Paper # 1259 Grain size effect on wear resistance of WC-Co cemented carbides under different tribological conditions H Wang, M Gee, Q Qiu, H Zhang, X Liu, H Nie Journal of Materials 2019 – Elsevier Paper # 1260 Efeito da texturização por laser de pulsos ultracurtos na resistência ao desgaste abrasivo de ferramentas de corte cerâmicas CR MELO, MB CARNEIRO, RE SAMAD, V JUNIOR 2019 – 126.96.36.199 Paper # 1261 Micro-abrasion investigations of conventional and experimental supercoarse WC-(NI, CO, MO) composites J Richter, K Harabas International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 2019 – Elsevier Paper # 1318 Corrosion and wear behavior of Ti-30Zr alloy for dental implants M Liu, Z Wang, C Shi, L Wang Materials Research, 2019 Paper # 1319 Microabrasive wear behavior of borided steel abraded by SiO2 particles AP Krelling, F Teixeira, CE da Costa Journal of Materials, 2019 – Elsevier Paper # 1320 Micro-scale abrasion wear of novel biomedical PEEK-matrix composites for restorative dentistry JCM Souza MST , 2019 Paper # 1321 Production and characterization of PEEK/IF-WS2 nanocomposites for additive manufacturing: Simultaneous improvement in processing characteristics and material … A Golbang, E Harkin-Jones, M Wegrzyn Additive, 2020 – Elsevier Paper #1352 Effect of Micro-abrasion on Corrosion Behavior of NiTi Alloy in PBS Solution Y Xue, Z Wang Journal of Bio-and Tribo-Corrosion – 2020 – Springer Paper #1353 The effect of shape and size distribution of abrasive particles on the volume loss of enamel using micro-abrasion M Baig, R Cook, J Pratten, R Wood Wear – 2020 – Elsevier Paper #1354 Production and characterization of PEEK/IF-WS2 nanocomposites for additive manufacturing: Simultaneous improvement in processing characteristics and material … A Golbang, E Harkin-Jones, M Wegrzyn, G Campbell, E Archer, A McIlhagger Additive Manufacturing – 2020 – Elsevier Paper #1355 Characterization of Sintered Aluminium Reinforced with Ultrafine Tungsten Carbide Particles O Emadinia, MT Vieira, MF Vieira Metals – 2020 – mdpi.com Paper #1356 Microstructural and tribological characterization of niobium boride coating produced on AISI 1020 steel via multicomponent boriding AP Krelling, EAS Almeida, CE da Costa, JCG Milan Materials Research Express – 2020 – iopscience.iop.org Paper #1357 Micro-abrasive Wear Behavior of Nitrided and Multilayer Coated High Vanadium Powder Metallurgy Alloy EAS De Almeida, BF Zappelino, RK Salvador, B Nunes, AP Krelling, CE da Costa, JCG Milan Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A – 2020 – Springer Paper #1358 Mapping the Micro-Abrasion Mechanisms of CoCrMo: Some Thoughts on Varying Ceramic Counterface Diameter on Transition Boundaries In Vitro K Sadiq, MA Sim, RA Black, MM Stack Lubricants – 2020 – mdpi.com
NV Bekaert SA Belgium VITO (Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek) Belgium Aperam Inox America do Sul Brazil Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Brazil National Research Council Canada Chongqing University China Ecole Centrale Lyon France Ecole des Mines, Nancy France University of Limoges France FH Schmalkalden Germany Ticona GmbH Germany TU Hamburg/Harburg Germany Universita Degli Studi di Bologna Italy Fukui University Japan KAITECH Korea De Lorenzo Mexico DSM Research Netherlands Silesian University Poland Silesian University Poland Minho University Portugal University of Porto Portugal Instituto Superior Tecnico Portugal Polytechnic University Bucharest Romania SIMTech Singapore DeBeers South Africa Sulzer Switzerland Edinburgh Napier University UK Ford Motor Company UK GSK UK National Physical Laboratory UK Queens University Belfast UK Sheffield Hallam University UK Strathclyde University UK Strathclyde University UK University of Cambridge UK University of Greenwich UK University of Hull UK University of Nottingham UK University of Oxford UK University of Southampton UK Warwick University UK Corning Inc USA Huber Engineered Materials USA
Download the Machine Leaflet