TE 67 MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLED PIN ON DISC MACHINE

 




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    Background

    The Microprocessor Controlled Pin on Disc Machine has a Class 1 contact configuration (pin or ball loaded vertically downwards onto a horizontally rotating disc) and accommodates a variety of test geometries. The principle features of the unit are very rigid pin and disc carriers to allow nominally flat-on-flat contact and the use of pneumatic loading on the pin to reduce inertial loading effects in the contact at high loads. This latter feature is an important difference from other pin on disc designs that use dead weights and a load beam. The loading inertia can effect dramatically the friction and wear data obtained.

    The control unit includes the SLIM 2000 Serial Link Interface Module and COMPEND 2000 Windows based control and data acquisition software. The automatic control of load, speed, temperature and test duration, combined with flexible data logging and alarm level checking, greatly facilitates use of the TE 67 for in-depth parametric studies in the wear of materials as well as more routine screening and development problems.

    The operating ranges can be extended with options for air heating, a lubricant enclosure, a reciprocating plate adapter, line contact adapter and fixtures for piston-ring/cylinder liner and annulus (thrust washer type) specimens.

    Test may be run in pin/ball on disc mode according to the guidelines laid out in ASTM G 99, DIN 50324 and ISO/DIS 7148-2 and in reciprocating mode according to ASTM F 732.

    Description

    The machine base frame holds the disc carrier spindle and the pin carrier assembly in a fixed orientation. The two assemblies are designed to maintain alignment between the pin and disc specimens so that flat-on-flat geometry can be used. Many test methods will use spherical ended pins or balls.

    Disc Carrier

    The test disc is mounted on the disc carrier spindle and secured by a central bolt. The spindle is driven through a pulley belt by the vector controlled a.c. motor mounted beneath the machine. The motor has encoder feedback to ensure stable running speeds and a large turn-down ratio.

    The track radius is set by moving the pin carrier assembly radially, permitting multiple tests to be performed on one disc specimen. An integral scale is used to set the radius to the middle of the pin/ball specimen.

    A high-sided ring fits over the disc carrier to permit tests to be run with lubrication at low sliding speeds. TE 67/LE provides a fully sealed system for higher speeds.

    Pin Carrier and Loading Capsules

    The pin carrier assembly consists of a massive aluminium block pivoted about a vertical axis through its centre. Interchangeable loading capsules fit into the front of this block. The test pin/ball holder is inserted into a collet clamp that screws into a precision piston in the loading capsule. The load is therefore applied directly above the contact point.

    The pneumatic capsule has a load range of 25-1,000 N at 7.5 bar operating pressure. An in-line compression load cell measures the applied load and provides load feedback for control. Both steady and fluctuating loads with a sine or triangular waveform can be applied.

    The dead-weight capsule has a load range of 5-100 N. Load is applied to the pin by adding calibrated masses to the loading pan. The large range obtainable by these interchangeable capsules facilitates parametric studies based on load.

    The entire pin carrier assembly can be rotated out of its locked horizontal position thus separating the contact and allowing access for changing specimens and examining the surfaces.

    Friction Measurement

    A strain gauge load cell is mounted at the rear of the pin carrier block, preventing the block pivoting about its central axis. This transducer therefore measures the force exerted on the pin during sliding. Two load cells are provided to match the ranges of the loading capsules. A retaining clamp maintains the pin carrier in contact with the transducer at all times, ensuring that bi-directional forces generated in pin on disc and reciprocating contacts are measured.

    Wear Measurement

    An indication of wear processes going on in the pin/disc contact is given by a linear potentiometer mounted in the pneumatic capsule. This transducer measures the movements of the pin piston during a test which can be due to wear, thermal expansion and wear debris generation.

    Contact Potential Measurement

    The pin loading capsules are electrically isolated from the carrier block and therefore from the disc specimen. This allows a small potential to be applied across the pin/disc contact from a Lunn-Furey Contact Resistance Circuit. The connection to the disc spindle is via a slip-ring and to the pin by a simple screw connection on the loading piston.

    Variations in the voltage across the contact are indicative of the amount of contact between the pin and disc specimens provided that both are conductors of electricity. Maximum voltage (typically 40 mV) corresponds to no contact (open circuit) while zero voltage corresponds to full contact (closed circuit). The voltage signal will typically fluctuate rapidly during a test so an rms signal is used for recording purposes.

    This kind of measurement is extremely useful when working with lubricants containing additives, solid lubricants and surface coatings. The contact measurement can be used to assess the formation and breakdown of high resistance chemically bonded films on the metal surfaces and the failure of coatings/films in the contact.

    Temperature Measurement

    The basic machine is provided with a sliding contact thermocouple that rests on the disc surface outside of the contact path. Further temperature sensing is provided with the TE 67/HT package.

    Control and Data Acquisition

    The TE 67 has PC based sequence programmable control and data acquisition. This is provided by an integrated Serial Link Interface Module and COMPEND 2000 software running on a host PC, operating under Windows. Data is stored to hard disc in standard spread sheet compatible file formats (.csv or .tsv).

    Tests are defined by a sequence of steps, each step containing set-point, data recording rates and alarm level information. Set-points may be adjusted by step change or ramp. The test sequence is followed unless interrupted by the operator or an alarm. Set-points may also be adjusted manually using on screen toggles.

    Accessories

    TE 67/HT Pin on Disc Heating and Temperature Sensing Packages

    The TE 67/HT1 comprises a stainless steel enclosure, which surrounds the test specimens and has an inlet and outlet port and a lid with access for the pin specimen and a viewing port.

    A high power air blower with electrical resistance heating element is used for heating the enclosure, with the hot jet directed into the inlet port of the enclosure and the exhaust directed to a chimney covering the outlet port.

    For lubricated tests the disc surface is open to the air and the disc carrier is heated by the air heating system only. The temperature is restricted to 200°C and measured with the standard trailing thermocouple.

    For dry tests the lid is fitted to fully enclose the specimens: both the disc and disc carrier are heated. The air heating system allows temperatures up to 400°C. An optical pyrometer is set to monitor the temperature of the edge of the disc through the viewing port on the lid. This provides the feedback signal for temperature control.

    Higher test temperatures can be achieved by the addition of TE 67/HT2 gas fired heating system. This consists of a small propane gas torch whose flame is directed through the inlet port of the enclosure to heat the disc carrier. The exhaust is directed to a chimney covering the outlet port. The torch has an integral piezoelectric starter and the system is controlled by means of a pilot flame and solenoid valve on the main gas supply. The maximum temperature with this arrangement is 750°C.

    TE 67/R Reciprocating Pin on Plate Adapter

    The Reciprocating Pin on Plate Adapter fits in place of the disc carrier and heater enclosure. The plate specimen carrier is a complete sub-assembly that mounts over and on top of the drive spindle. The existing pin carrier assembly mounts on top of the Adapter.

    The fixed plate specimen is located on two screw fittings in a stainless steel reservoir. The reservoir is clamped to a block that is heated by four electrical resistance elements and the temperature is monitored by a thermocouple pressed against the side of the specimen or holder. The reservoir can be moved sideways on the heater block so that multiple tests can be performed on one plate specimen.

    The heater block is mounted on a small base plate, restrained to move in a horizontal plane by linear bearings. This base plate forms the outer part of a scotch yoke mechanism. The inner cross head is driven by an eccentric pin mounted on the drive spindle. The eccentricity of this pin can be set between 0 and 25 mm, giving a total stroke of 50 mm. The motion is pure sinusoidal.

    The reciprocating adapter offers a valuable extension to the operating range of the TE 67. In particular the reciprocating contact offers a more realistic simulation of some practical contact situations (for instance reciprocating seals, piston ring and cylinder liner and other repeating contacts). The maximum operational frequency at 50 mm stroke is limited to 5 Hz for reasons of machine vibration. Higher frequencies are permissible provided that the total stroke is reduced.

    The primary role of the pin on disc machine is as a tool for the analysis of the wear of materials. The reciprocating pin on plate adapter is likewise a tool for the analysis of wear. One of the chief differences is in the dynamics of wear particles. In the pin on disc, the particles are free to move away from the contact area, whereas in the reciprocating contact there is a much higher chance of the particles being involved in the contact and to contribute to the friction characteristics.

    The reciprocating adapter is also more suitable to the study of abrasion than the pin on disc mode, again because of the way in which the abrasive particles will be involved in the contact region. The linear motion makes this mode suitable for studying different surface finishing techniques.

    TE 67/PV Pin on Vee Block/Block on Ring Adapter

    This pneumatically loaded adapter allows tests to be performed using the classic pin on vee block test geometry and also using the twin block on ring geometry, with a test block loaded on either side of a rotating ring. The block specimens may either be flat or conforming, the latter allowing journal bearing type tests to be performed.

    TE 67/LE Lubricant Enclosure

    The TE 67/LE is a stainless steel enclosure that mounts over the test spindle. It is sealed against the rotating shaft and provided with a lid to permit tests to be run with the disc fully immersed in fluid. Two electrical resistance heater elements are mounted in the base of the enclosure to allow the fluid temperature to be controlled up to 200°C. Thermocouples are provided to sense the enclosure and fluid temperatures.

    The fluid may be fed by gravity or circulated through the enclosure using the TE 67/LS or other suitable circulation system. The feed position is on the lid close to the in-running side of the contact and the drain is located at the base of the enclosure.

    TE 67/LS Lubricant Recirculating System

    The Lubricant Recirculating System uses an anodised aluminium bath and lid with inlet, outlet and thermocouple ports. The bath is mounted on a laboratory heater/stirrer unit. A magnetic paddle is placed inside the bath to ensure that the liquid is heated evenly. The temperature of the liquid is monitored by the thermocouple mounted in the lid and the value is read off from a free-standing temperature display unit. The temperature set-point is selected manually on the heater unit.

    There are two integrated peristaltic pumps, one to pump liquid from the bath to a test adapter and one to scavenge the fluid from the test adapter and return it back to the bath. The scavenge pump does not have to be used if the fluid is of low viscosity (eg water) when a gravity return is sufficient.

    TE 67/A Annulus on Disc Adapter for Suzuki Method

    The TE 67/A is a thrust direction test, meaning that two flat faced rings or washers are pressed together. The lower ring is rotated. The pin carrier assembly is set to ZERO radius so that the loading direction is concentric with the disc carrier spindle axis. The upper specimen is located in a spherical bearing: this ensures that the pressure is evenly distributed around the annulus and permits the frictional torque to be measured.

    A torque arm is attached to the spherical bearing assembly and the standard strain gauge transducer is moved from the rear of the pin carrier assembly to a new mounting position that restrains this arm from rotation. There are two positions for the transducer, giving torque ranges of 100 Nm and 54 Nm.

    TE 67/RSTE Rotary Sealed Test Enclosure

    The TE 67/RSTE is a sealed pin on disc test enclosure used in conjunction with the TE 67/HIS Induction Heating System. This combination allows sealed pin on disc tests to be run at temperatures up to 400°C and unsealed tests up to the limit of the heating system but not exceeding 750°C.

    TE 67/IHS Induction Heating System

    This comprises a Model TR1-1 kW microprocessor controlled induction heater, standard work head assembly, induction work coil and air blast water cooler.

    TE 67/LCA Line Contact Adapter

    Sample holders for running tests with piston ring and cylinder liner on the TE 67/R Reciprocating Adapter. This incorporates a self-alignment mechanism to ensure face contact is maintained.

    TE 67/CAL Calibration Kit for Load and Friction

    The two most important parameters to calibrate on the TE 67 are the normal load and the friction force. TE 67/CAL provides a pivoted beam with dead weights able to apply up to 1,000 N to the loading system and a pulley, cord and weights to apply a tangential force to the pin carrier for friction measurement.

     

     



  • Technical Specifications

    Rotational Speed: 20 to 2,000 rpm
    Equivalent Sliding Speed: 0.05 m/s to 8 m/s
    Radius of Test Track: 0 to 35 mm
    Pneumatic Loading Capsule:
    Load Range: 25 to 1000 N
    Cyclic Loading Amplitude: up to 50% of setpoint
    Cyclic Loading Type: sine wave or triangular wave
    Cyclic Loading Rate: 1 Hz maximum
    Dead Weight Loading Capsule:
    Load Range: 5 to 100 N
    Friction Force: 0 to 50 N and
    0 to 1,000 N
    Wear Measurement: LVDT 0 to 2.5 mm
    Resolution better than 1 µm
    Contact Potential: 40 mV dc signal
    Temperature Sensing: k-type thermocouples
    Disc Specimen: 75 mm diameter x 8 mm thick
    Pin Specimen: 8 mm diameter x 35 to 68 mm long
    Ball Specimen: 6 mm diameter
    Interface: Serial Link Interface Module
    Software: COMPEND 2000
    Motor: 2.2 kW ac vector
    Controlled Parameters Rotational Speed
    Temperature
    Load
    Test Duration
    Recorded Parameters Rotational Speed
    Wear
    Friction Force
    Temperatures
    Contact Potential
    Number of Revolutions
    Test Duration
    Sliding Speed
    Friction Coefficient
    Sliding Distance
    TE 67/HT1 Pin on Disc Heating (Air)
    Lubricated Tests: up to 200°C
    Dry Tests: up to 400°C by air
    Air Heating Power: 2.8 kW
    Temperature sensing: Optical Pyrometer with
    k-type thermocouple output
    TE 67/HT2 Pin on Disc Heating (Gas)
    Dry Tests up to 750°C by gas
    Burner Nominal Power: 4.7 kW with propane @ 4 bar pressure
    Consumption 340 g/hour
    TE 67/R Reciprocating Plate Adapter
    Stroke: 0 to 50 mm (continuous variation)
    Frequency: 2 to 25 Hz
    5 Hz max. at 50 mm stroke
    25 Hz max. at 2 mm stroke
    Heating Power: 800 W
    Temperature: ambient to 400°C
    Plate Dimensions: 38 mm x 58 mm x 4 mm thick
    TE 67/LE Lubricant Enclosure
    Bath Volume: 150 ml
    Heating Power: 400 W
    Temperature Range: ambient to 200°C
    TE 67/LS Lubricant Recirculating System
    Bath Volume: 1.2 litres
    Peristaltic Pump Flow: 1 litre/minute (maximum)
    Heating Power: 550 W
    Temperature Range: ambient to 100°C
    TE 67/A Annulus on Disc Adapter for Suzuki Method
    Annulus Size: 20 mm i.d. x 25 mm o.d. x 15 mm high
    Torque Ranges: 54 Nm and 100 Nm
    Maximum Load: 500 N
    Maximum Speed: 500 rpm
    TE 67/RSTE and TE 67/IHS:Rotary Sealed Test Enclosure
    Sealed Tests: Ambient to 400°C
    Unsealed Tests: Not exceeding 750°C (subject to heating capacity)
    Induction Heater: 1 kW
    TE 67/PV Pin on Vee Block/Block on Ring Adapter
    Contact Configuration: Pin on vee block
    Block on ring
    Conforming block on ring
    Pin on Vee Specimens: Standard Falex specimens
    Ring Specimen: Max diameter 35 mm x max width 10 mm
    Maximum Load: 20,000 N
    Heater Bath Temperature: 200°C
    Services
    Electricity: 220/240V, single phase, 50 Hz, 7.5 kW
    110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 7.5 kW
    Clean, dry air: 4 cfm at 8 bar (120 psi)
    TE 67/HT2: Propane with 4 bar regulator 340 g/hour gas consumption
    Installation
    Floor-standing machine: 900 mm wide x 600 mm deep x 1,200 mm high, 300 kg
    Bench-mounting cabinet: 530 mm x 800 mm x 300 mm high, 20 kg
    Packing Specifications: 1.93 m3, GW 520 kg, NW 380 kg



  • Publications

    Paper # 67 Wear of aligned silicon nitride under dry sliding conditions
    M Belmonte, P Miranzo, MI Osendi, JR Gomes
    Wear Volume 266, Issues 1-2, 5 January 2009, p. 6-12
    Paper # 73 Effect of Metallic-Coating Properties on the Tribology of Coated and Oil-Lubricated Ceramics
    Ajayi O O, Erdemir A, Fenske G R, Erck R A, Hsieh J H, Nichols F A,
    Tribology Transactions, 37(3), 1994, 656-666.
    Paper # 74 Friction and Wear of TiN Coatings: Contribution of CETRIB/INEGI to the TWA1-1993-VAMAS Round-Robin
    Baptista A P M,
    Wear 192, 1996, 237-240.
    Paper # 85 Friction and Wear Studies of a Bismaleimide
    Tewari U S, Sharma S K, Vasudevan P,
    Tribology International, 21(10), 1988, 27-30.
    Paper # 86 Physio-Chemical Studies on Potential Lubricants: Phthalocyanines
    Tewari U S, Sharma S K,
    Tribology International, 22 (4), 1989, 253-258.
    Paper # 91 Development and Tribological Assessment of Self-Lubricating Anodic Films on Aluminium
    Wang H W, Skeldon P, Thompson G E,
    Surface Coatings and Technology, 88, 1996, 269-273.
    Paper # 92 Formation and Characterisation of Self-Lubricating MoS2 Precursor Films on Anodised Aluminium
    Wang H W, Skeldon P, Thompson G E,
    Wear 206, 1997, 187-196.
    Paper # 113 Wear Bench Test of Materials Used for Piston Rings and Cylinder Liners of Internal Combustion Engines
    Maru M M, Tanaka D K, Sinatora A, Galvano M,
    SAE 982946 (presented at VII International Mobility Technology Conference, Sao Paulo, November 9-11, 1998).
    Paper # 133 Sliding wear of PP/UHMWPE blends: effect of blend composition
    S A R Hashmi, Somit Neogi, Anuradha Pandey and Navin Chand
    Wear 247 (2001) 9-14
    Paper # 146 Dry Sliding Wear Characteristics of Some Zinc-Aluminium Alloys: a Comparative Study with a Conventional Bearing Bronze at a Slow Speed
    Prasad B K, Patwardhan A K, Yegneswaran A H,
    Wear 199, 1996, 142-151.
    Paper # 157 Development and Use of ASTM Standards for Wear Testing
    Blau P J, Budinski K G,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 1159-1170.
    Paper # 192 Wear Mechanisms
    Eyre T S,
    Powder Metallurgy, 24(2), 1981, 57-63.
    Paper # 237 Sliding Wear of Plasma Nitrided Steels
    Podgornik B, Vizintin J,
    Proc. 7th International Colloquium, Tribology 2000 – Plus, Esslingen, January 2000, Paper 24.8, 1663-1670.
    Paper # 239 Comparison of Sliding and Abrasive Wear Mechanisms for Cemented Carbides and Ceramics.
    Almond E A, Lay L A, Gee M G,
    Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on the Science of Hard Materials, Institute of Physics Conference Series No 75: p919, Adam Hilger, 1986.
    Paper # 240 Results from a UK Interlaboratory Project on Dry Sliding Wear.
    Almond E A, Gee M G,
    Wear 120 (1987)101.
    Paper # 241 Some Observations of Ceramic-Metal Sliding Wear.
    Gee M G,
    British Ceramics Proceedings, 39(1987)141.
    Paper # 243 Ceramic Wear Testing and Design.
    Gee M G, Almond E A,
    Materials Engineering and Design, Eds B F Dyson and D R Hayhurst, Proceedings of the I of M meeting on Materials and Design, May 1988, 1989, Institute of Metals, p.159.
    Paper # 244 Effects from vibrations in wear testing of ceramics.
    Gee M G, Almond E A,
    Mat Sci Technol, 4(1988)655.
    Paper # 245 Effects of Test Variables in Wear Testing of Ceramics.
    Gee M G, Almond E A,
    Mat Sci Technol, 4(1988)877.
    Paper # 246 Effect of Surface Finish on the Sliding Wear of Alumina.
    Gee M G, Almond E A,
    J Mat Sci, 25(1990)296.
    Paper # 249 The Effects of Surrounding Atmosphere on the Wear of Sintered Alumina.
    Perez-Unzueta A J, Beynon J H, Gee M G,
    To be published in Wear.
    Paper # 250 Results from a UK interlaboratory exercise on the wear of alumina.
    Gee M G,
    ASTM STP 1167, Wear Testing of Advanced Materials, pp. 129-150.
    Paper # 251 Effect of Test Machine Dynamics on the Sliding Wear of Alumina, Wear Testing of Advanced Materials.
    Gee M G,
    ASTM STP 1167, pp.24-44.
    Paper # 252 Modification to the Surface Layers of Alumina in Sliding Wear.
    Gee M G,
    British Ceramic Proceedings, 48(1991)11-25.
    Paper # 253 The Formation of Glass in the Wear of Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride.
    Gee M G,
    J Appl Phys D, 1A(1992)A182-A188.
    Paper # 254 The Application of Confocal Scanning Microscopy to the Examination of Ceramic Wear Surfaces.
    Gee M G, McCormick N J,
    J Appl Phys D, 1A(1992)A230-235.
    Paper # 255 The Formation of Aluminium Hydroxide in the Sliding Wear of Alumina.
    Gee M G,
    Wear 153(1992)201-227.
    Paper # 256 Sliding Wear of Alumina.
    Gee M G,
    J Hard Materials, 3(1992)363-377.
    Paper # 258 Wear Metrology: The Art of Determining a Material’s Performance.
    Gee M G,
    Materials World, May 1993.
    Paper # 260 Wear Testing and Ceramics.
    Gee M G,
    Proc Instn Mech Engrs, 208(1994)153-166.
    Paper # 267 Measurement of Friction Under Simulated Metal Working Conditions in Miniaturised Test Systems.
    Gee M G, Loveday M S, Brookes M R,
    1997
    Paper # 303 Combined effect of speed and humidity on the wear of silicon nitride.
    Gee M G, Butterfield D,
    NPL Report DMM (A)36, September 1991.
    Paper # 304 Guidelines for Unlubricated Sliding Wear Tests: Part 1, General Approach.
    Gee M G,
    NPL Report DMM(A)96, April 1993.
    Paper # 305 Guidelines for Unlubricated Sliding Wear Tests: Part 2, Procedures for Pin-on-Disc Testing.
    Gee M G,
    NPL Report DMM(A)97, April 1993.
    Paper # 307 TiCxOy thin films for decorative applications: Tribocorrosion mechanisms and synergism
    MT Mathew, E Ariza, LA Rocha, AC Fernandes, F Vaz
    Wear Volume 41, Issue 7, July 2008, p. 603-615
    Paper # 312 Development and Validation of Test Methods for Thin Hard Coatings (FASTE).
    Vetters H, Meneve J, Jennett N M, Gee M G, von Stebut J, Kelly P,
    SMT Contract MAT1-CT 9400045, April 1998.
    Paper # 350 Laboratory Test Rig Simulation of Bore Polish
    Gondal A K, Davis F A, Eyre T S,
    Materials Science and Technology January 1998 Vol 14
    Paper # 406 Effect of carbon fibre reinforcement in the frictional behaviour of PEEK in a water lubricated environment
    J Paulo Davim, Nuno Marques and A Monteiro Baptista
    Wear 251 (2001) 1100-1104
    Paper # 417 A note on the effect of temperature on the friction and wear behaviour of carbon-fibre-reinforced Polyetheretherketone (PEEK-CF30) at dry sliding
    JP Davim, R Cardoso
    International Journal of Microstructure and Materials Properties 2005, Volume 1, No 1, 3-10
    Paper # 421 Abrasive wear behavior of TiB2 particle-reinforced copper matrix composites
    SC Tjong, KC Lau
    Materials Science and Engineering Volume 282, Issues 1-2, 30 April 2000, p. 183-186
    Paper # 428 An experimental study of the tribological behaviour of the brass/steel pair
    JP Davim
    Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 100, Number 1, 3 April 2000, p. 273-277
    Paper # 436 Characterization of diamond-like carbon films deposited on commercially pure Ti and Ti–6Al–4V
    DH Kim, HE Kim, KR Lee, CN Whang, IS Lee
    Materials Science and Engineering: C Volume 22, Issue 1, 1 October 2002, p. 9-14
    Paper # 446 Corrosion and abrasive wear behaviour of laser consolidated plasma sprayed sic coating on Fe–15Cr–25Ni alloy Corrosion and abrasive wear behaviour of laser consolidated plasma sprayed sic coating on Fe-15Cr
    SC Tjong, KC Lau, J Ku, NJ Ho
    Surface Engineering, Volume 15, Number 6, December 1999, pp. 490-494
    Paper # 447 CVD diamond coated silicon nitride self-mated systems: tribological behaviour under high loads
    CS Abreu, FJ Oliveira, M Belmonte, AJS Fernandes, JR Gomes, RF Silva
    Tribology Letters Volume 21, Number 2 / February, 2006 p. 141-151
    Paper # 449 Dry sliding wear of TiB2 particle reinforced aluminium alloy composites
    SC Tjong, KC Lau
    Materials Science and Technology, Volume 16, Number 1, January 2000, pp. 99-102
    Paper # 450 Dynamic signal analyses in dry sliding wear tests
    R Bergantin, MM Maru, MCM Farias, LR Padovese
    Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering July/September 2003, Volume 25, No 3, p. 289-292
    Paper # 454 Effects of crystallinity, transcrystallinity and crystal phases of GF/PA on friction and wear mechanisms
    HCY Cartledge, CA Baillie
    Journal of Materials Science, Volume 37, Number 14, 15 July 2002, pp. 3005-3022
    Paper # 457 Evaluation of Tribological Behaviour of Polymeric Materials for Hip Prostheses Application
    JP Davim, N Marques
    Tribology Letters Volume 11, Number 2 / August, 2001 p. 91-94
    Paper # 462 Friction and wear performance of HFCVD nanocrystalline diamond coated silicon nitride ceramics
    CS Abreu, M Amaral, AJS Fernandes, FJ Oliveira, RF Silvab, JR Gomes
    Diamond and Related Materials Volume 15, Issues 4-8, April-August 2006, p. 739-744
    Paper # 474 Influence of loading, contamination and additive on the wear of a metallic pair under rotating and reciprocating lubricated sliding
    MM Maru, DK Tanaka
    Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering Vol. XXVIII, No. 3, July-September 2006
    Paper # 495 Modeling of the voltage-controlled friction effect
    M Yonggang, J Hongjun, C Qiuying
    Science in China Series A-Mathematics, 2002
    Paper # 505 Reciprocating sliding behaviour of self-mated amorphous diamond-like carbon coatings on Si3N4 ceramics under tribological stress
    M Vila, CS Abreu, E Salgueiredo, FA Almeida, AJS Fernandes, FM Costa, JR Gomes, RF Silva
    Thin Solid Films Volume 515, Issue 4, 5 December 2006, p. 2192-2196
    Paper # 514 Sliding wear resistance of metal matrix composite layers prepared by high power laser
    V Ocelík, D Matthews, JTM De Hosson
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 197, Issues 2-3, 22 July 2005, p. 303-315
    Paper # 515 Solid Freeform Fabrication of In Situ SiC/C Thermocouples in Macrocomponents
    L Sun, LL Shaw
    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Volume 30, Number 9, 1 September 1999, p. 2549-2551
    Paper # 536 The Effect of Heat Treatment on Sliding Wear Behaviour of a Zinc-Based Alloy Containing Nickel and Silicon
    BK Prasad
    Tribology Letters Issue Volume 15, Number 3 / October, 2003 p. 333-341
    Paper # 549 Thermo-mechanical model to predict the tribological behaviour of the composite PEEK-CF 30/steel pair
    JP Davim, R Cardoso
    Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Oct 2005 Volume: 57 Issue: 5 Page: 181 – 186
    Paper # 550 Ti-6Al-4V strengthened by laser melt injection of WCp particles
    JA Vreeling, V Ocelik, JTM Hosson
    Acta Materialia, Volume 50, Number 19, 14 November 2002, pp. 4913-4924
    Paper # 558 Tribological Behavior of Patterned PVD TiN Coatings on M2 Steel
    M Hua, HY Ma, CK Mok, J Li
    Tribology Letters Volume 17, Number 3 / October, 2004 p. 645-653
    Paper # 560 Tribological behaviour of colloidally processed sialon ceramics sliding against steel under dry conditions
    P Reis, JP Davim, X Xu, JMF Ferreira
    Tribology Letters Volume 18, Number 3 / March, 2005 p. 295-301
    Paper # 563 Tribological behaviour of Si3N4–BN ceramic materials for dry sliding applications
    JM Carrapichano, JR Gomes, RF Silva
    Wear Volume 253, Number 9, November 2002, pp. 1070-1076
    Paper # 564 Tribological behaviour of the composite PEEK-CF30 at dry sliding against steel using statistical
    JP Davim, R Cardoso
    Materials and Design, 2006 – Volume 27, Issue 4, 2006, p. 338-342 – Elsevier
    Paper # 565 Tribological comparative study of conventional and composite materials in biomedical applications
    N Marques, JP Davim
    Engineering Materials 2002
    Paper # 571 Wear behavior on advanced structural ceramics: α-sialon matrix reinforced with β-sialon fibers
    P Reis, V Filho, JP Davim, X Xu, JMF Ferreira
    Materials & Design Volume 28, Issue 4, 2007, p. 1343-1347
    Paper # 576 Wear of ceramic particle-reinforced metal-matrix composites
    ZF Zhang, LC Zhang, YW Mai
    Journal of Materials Science Issue Volume 30, Number 8 / January, 1995 p. 1967-1971
    Paper # 610 HFCVD nanocrystalline diamond coatings for tribo-applications in the presence of water
    CS Abreu, M Amaral, FJ Oliveira, JR Gomes
    Diamond and Related Materials Volume 18, Issues 2-3, February-March 2009, p. 271-275
    Paper # 615 Experimental characterization of frictional behaviour of clutch facings using Pin-on-disk machine
    M Bezzazi, A Khamlichi, A Jabbouri, P Reis, JP Davim
    Materials and Design Volume 28, Issue 7, 2007, p. 2148-2153
    Paper # 616 Temperature field and wear prediction for UHMWPE acetabular cup with assumed rectangular surface texture
    GN Dong, M Hua, J Li, KB Chuah
    Materials and Design Volume 28, Issue 9, 2007, p. 2402-2416
    Paper # 617 Prediction on tribological behaviour of composite PEEK-CF30 using artificial neural networks
    X LiuJie, JP Davim, R Cardoso,
    Journal of Materials Processing Technology Volume 189, Issues 1-3, 6 July 2007, p. 374-378
    Paper # 618 A note on tribological behaviour of α-sialon/steel couples under dry conditions
    P Reis, JP Davim, X Xu, JMF Ferreira
    Materials and Design Volume 28, Issue 4, 2007, p. 1343-1347
    Paper # 619 Tribological properties of the directionally oriented warp knit GFRP composites
    MT Mathew, NV Padaki, LA Rocha, JR Gomes, R Alagirusamy, B L Deopura, R Fangueiro,
    Wear Volume 263, Issues 7-12, 10 September 2007, p. 930-938
    Paper # 620 Relationship between test severity and wear mode transition in micro-abrasive wear tests
    RC Cozza, JDB de Mello, DK Tanaka, RM Souza,
    Wear Volume 263, Issues 1-6, 10 September 2007, p. 111-116
    Paper # 656 TiCxOy thin films for decorative applications: Tribocorrosion mechanisms and synergism
    MT Mathew, E Ariza, LA Rocha, AC Fernandes and F Vaz
    Tribology International, Volume 41, Issue 7, July 2008, p. 603-615
    Paper # 657 Comparative study of friction behaviour of alumina and zirconia ceramics against steel under water lubricated conditions
    J Paulo Davim, Edgar Santos, Catarina Pereira, JMF Ferreira
    Industrial Lubrication and Tribology 2008 Volume: 60 Issue: 4 Page: 178 – 182
    Paper # 658 Friction and wear behavior of SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel against Al2O3 ceramic ball under relative high load
    Meng Hua, Wei Xicheng and Li Jian
    Wear Volume 265, Issues 5-6, 25 August 2008, p. 799-810
    Paper # 659 HFCVD nanocrystalline diamond coatings for tribo-applications in the presence of water
    CS Abreu, M Amaral, FJ Oliveira, JR Gomes and RF Silva
    Diamond and Related Materials, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 8 September 2008,
    Paper # 660 The Influence on Boundary Friction of the Permeability of Sintered Bronze
    Pär Marklund , Kim Berglund, Roland Larsson
    Tribology Letters Issue Volume 31, Number 1 / July, 2008 p. 1-8
    Paper # 692 Friction-induced microstructure evolution of SUS 304 meta-stable austenitic stainless steel and its influence on the wear behaviour
    Xicheng Wei, Meng Hua, Zongyu Xue, Zhi Gao, Jian Li
    Wear of Materials 2009
    Paper # 693 Dry sliding wear of Al alloy/SiC functionally graded composites: influence of processing conditions
    AC Vieira, PD Sequeira, JR Gomes, LA Rocha
    Wear of Materials 2009
    Paper # 723 Dry sliding wear of Al alloy/SiCp functionally graded composites: Influence of processing conditions
    AC Vieira, PD Sequeira, JR Gomes, LA Rocha
    Wear Volume 267, Issues 1-4, 15 June 2009, p. 585-592
    Paper # 733 Sliding wear characteristics of grey cast iron as influenced by sliding speed, load and environment
    BK Prasad
    Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 2, Number 3, September 2008, 128-138(11)
    Paper # 738 Lubricant ageing effects on the friction characteristics of wet clutches
    K Berglund, P Marklund, R Larsson
    Proceedings of the I MECH E Part J Journal of Engineering Tribology, Volume 224, Number J7, 2010, pp. 639-647
    Paper # 754 Effects of Some Solid Lubricants Suspended in Oil Toward Controlling the Wear Performance of a Cast Iron
    BK Prasad, S Rathod, MS Yadav
    Journal of Tribology 2010 Volume 132, Issue 4
    Paper # 760 Fabrication of WC/Fe composite coating by centrifugal casting plus in-situ synthesis techniques
    L Niu, Y Xu
    Surface and Coatings Technology, 2010 Volume 210, Issue 12, p. 1587-1597
    Paper # 785 Sliding wear resistance of Al-alloy particulate composites: An assessment on its efficacy
    R Dasgupta
    Tribology International 2010 Volume 43, Issues 5-6, p. 951-958
    Paper # 791 The Influence of Lead Suspension in Oil Lubricant on the Sliding Wear Behaviour of Cast Iron
    BK Prasad, S Rathod, MS Yadav
    Tribology Letters 2010 Volume 37, Number 2, p. 289-299
    Paper # 792 Tribocorrosion Behaviour of TiCxOy Thin Filmsin Bio-fluids
    MT Mathew, E Ariza, LA Rocha, F Vaz
    Electrochimica Acta 2010 Volume 56, Issue 2, p. 929-937
    Paper # 798 Tribological characterisation of carbon nanotubes/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites: the effect of sliding distance
    S Kanagaraj, MT Mathew, A Fonseca
    International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering Volume 4, Number 4-6/2010, p. 305 – 321
    Paper # 800 Tribological, rheological and mechanical characterization of polymer blends for ropes and nets
    MT Mathew, J Novo, LA Rocha, JA Covas
    Tribology International 2010, Volume 43, Issue 8, p. 1400-1409
    Paper # 801 Wear mechanisms and microstructure of pulsed plasma nitrided aisi h13 tool steel
    MV Leite, CA Figueroa, SC Gallo, AC Rovani
    Wear 2010 Volume 269, Issues 5-6, p. 466-472
    Paper # 807 ESTUDO DE DISPOSITIVOS NÃO-LINEARES PARA AMORTECIMENTO DE VIBRAÇÕES EM SISTEMAS DINÂMICOS
    A Marques Barbosa
    Horizonte Científico, Vol. 5, Nº 2 (2011)
    Paper # 808 Sliding Wear Behavior of Cast Iron: Influence of MoS 2 and Graphite Addition to the Oil Lubricant
    BK Prasad, S Rathod, MS Yadav
    Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance Volume 20, Number 3, 445-455
    Paper # 838 Effects of the Pin-on-Disc Parameters on the Wear of Alumina
    NR Tedesco, EMJA Pallone
    Advances in Science and Technology (Volume 65) Pages 39-44
    Paper # 848 Preparation of in situ (Fe, Cr) 7 C 3/Fe composite coating by centrifugal casting
    L Niu, Y Xu, H Wu
    Surface Engineering, Volume 27, Number 8, September 2011 , pp. 587-590
    Paper # 857 A DLC/diamond bilayer approach for reducing the initial friction towards a high bearing capacity
    M Amaral, DJ Carreira, AJS Fernandes, CS Abreu
    Wear Volumes 290–291, 30 June 2012, Pages 18–24
    Paper # 873 New advances on maskless electrochemical texturing (MECT) for tribological purposes
    JG Parreira, CA Gallo, HL Costa
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 212, November 2012, Pages 1–13
    Paper # 878 Reciprocal dry sliding wear behaviour of B4Cp reinforced aluminium alloy matrix composites
    F Toptan, I Kerti, LA Rocha
    Wear Volumes 290–291, 30 June 2012, Pages 74–85
    Paper # 885 Tribological characterization of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel as substitute of articular cartilage
    VM Sardinha, LL Lima, WD Belangero, CA Zavaglia
    Wear – Available online 3 December 2012
    Paper # 889 Ultra-low friction coefficient in alumina–silicon nitride pair lubricated with water
    V Ferreira, HN Yoshimura, A Sinatora
    Wear Volume 296, Issues 1–2, 30 August 2012, Pages 656–659
    Paper # 923 In Situ Production of (Fe, Cr) 7C3 Particulate Bundles Reinforced Iron Matrix Composites
    JL Tian, FX Ye, LS Zhong, YH Xu
    Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 602 – 604) Pages 456-459 December, 2012
    Paper # 924 Microstructure and Wear Properties of In Situ Production of (Fe, Cr) 7C3 Particulate Bundles Reinforced Iron Matrix Composites
    LS Zhong, FX Ye, JL Tian, YH Xu
    Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 652 – 654) Pages 64-68 January, 2013
    Paper # 925 Tribocorrosion behaviour of Ti-CON nanostructured thin films (black) for decorative applications
    P Lima, M Araújo, MT Mathew, LA Rocha, AM Pinto, M. Chappé, M.D. Ramos, L. Marques, J.F. Pierson, F. Vaz
    Tribology International Volume 68, December 2013, Pages 1–10
    Paper # 926 Tribological characterization of biocompatible HAp-TiO2 coatings obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel spray
    H Melero, M Torrell, J Fernández, JR Gomes, J.M. Guilemany
    Wear Volume 305, Issues 1–2, 30 July 2013, Pages 8–13
    Paper # 927 Self-mated tribological systems based on multilayer micro/nanocrystalline CVD diamond coatings
    E Salgueiredo, CS Abreu, M Amaral, FJ Oliveira, J.R. Gomes, R.F. Silva
    Wear Volume 303, Issues 1–2, 15 June 2013, Pages 225–234
    Paper # 985 High temperature friction and wear mechanism map for tool steel and boron steel tribopair
    S Hernandez, J Hardell, C Courbon
    Tribology-Materials and Surface Interfaces, 2014
    Paper # 999 Potentiality of triboscopy to monitor friction and wear
    MB dos Santos, HL Costa, JDB De Mello
    Wear, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 1018 Effect of pH on wear and friction of silicon nitride sliding against alumina in water
    RP de Oliveira, E dos Santos, T Cousseau
    Tribology International 2015
    Paper # 1020 Effects of various base oils and additives on the tribological behaviour of lubricated aluminium- on-aluminium and steel-on-aluminium contacts
    C Chen, H Bosse and L Deters
    Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, March 1, 2009; vol. 223, 3: pp. 571-580
    Paper # 1023 Folha de Rosto
    RL Tauffer
    portais4.ufes.br
    Paper # 1028 Influence of ‘off-contact’ electric potential on frictional behaviour of an agate-brass (SiO2-Cu) rubbing couple
    H Jiang, P L Wong and Y Meng
    Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, February 1, 2001; vol. 215, 2: pp. 201-206
    Paper # 1030 Influence of layer thickness on sliding wear of multifunctional tribological coatings
    LC Lara, H Costa, JDB de Mello
    Industrial Lubrication and Tribology 2015
    Paper # 1051 Friction and Wear Phenomena in Steels at Elevated Temperatures
    S Hernandez
    DiVA; Theses and Dissertations 2016
    Paper # 1052 A comparative study on the dry sliding wear behaviour of nitrocarburised, gas nitrided, fluidised-bed nitrided, and plasma nitrided plastic mould steel
    E Boztepe, AC Alves, A Ramalho
    International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering; Volume 10, Issue 5
    Paper # 1071 The influence of initial roughness and circular axial run-out on friction and wearbehavior of Si 3 N 4–Al 2 O 3 sliding in water
    R Balarini, NF Strey, A Sinatora, C Scandian
    Tribology International; Volume 101, September 2016, Pages 226-233
    Paper # 1077 O efeito da carga normal no comportamento tribológico de uma superliga de cobalto no ensaio pino-disco
    RL Tauffer
    UFES Brazil Libraries; Theses and Dissertations 2016



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    Launched 1988

    Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo Brazil
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    Instituto de Engenharia Mecânica e Gestão Industrial Portugal
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    U M I S T (Corrosion & Protection Centre) UK
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