TE 77 HIGH FREQUENCY FRICTION MACHINE

 




  • Background

    The TE 77 High Frequency Friction Machine is a versatile reciprocating tribometer with a maximum stroke of 25 mm and maximum load of 1,000 N. It is now a well-established research and development tool for evaluation of lubricants, materials, coatings and surface treatments. With the TE 77, sliding contact conditions can be matched to a number of machine elements. Specimens may either be of a standard format, or cut from real components, preserving surface finish and other properties.

    The TE 77 was used for the inter laboratory tests for the development of ASTM G 133 “Standard Test Method for Linearly Reciprocating Ball on Flat Sliding Wear”, which addresses the dry and lubricated wear of ceramics, metals and ceramic composites and also for ASTM G 181 “Standard Practice for Conducting Friction Tests of Piston Ring and Cylinder Liner Materials Under Lubricated Conditions”.

    Although not included in the inter laboratory test programs, the TE 77, in conjunction with selected adapters, can also accommodate tests specimens and provide test conditions as specified in the following standards:

    ASTM D 5706 “Standard Test Method for Determining Extreme Pressure Properties of Lubricating Grease Using a High Frequency Linear-Oscillating Test Machine”

    ASTM D 5707 “Standard Test Method for Measuring Friction and Wear Properties of Lubricating Grease Using a High Frequency Linear-Oscillating Test Machine”

    ISO/DIN 12156-2 “Diesel Fuel Lubricity – Performance Requirement Test Method for Assessing Fuel Lubricity”

    ASTM D 6079 “Standard Test Method for Evaluating Lubricity of Diesel Fuels by the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)”

    A large body of technical publications from existing users provides information on a wide range of non-standard research and development test procedures.

    Description

    TE 77 High Frequency Friction Machine is supplied with its own floor standing bench and with integral control unit incorporating a SUPERSLIM Serial Link Interface Module, which is connected to a host PC with COMPEND 2000 sequence control and data acquisition software installed. The system provides sequence control of load, frequency and temperature plus data acquisition of measured parameters, at both low and high speed.

    Moving Specimen

    The moving specimen is mounted in a carrier. A number of different geometries can be accommodated by using a range of simple clamping fixtures.



    6 mm ball carrier in standard sleeve
    10 mm ball carrier


    6 mm diameter line contact tooling

    Self aligning area contact toolingThe specimen is oscillated mechanically against the fixed lower specimen. The mechanical drive comprises a motor driven cam and scotch yoke assembly, providing pure sinusoidal motion. The drive mechanism runs inside an oil bath.

    The stroke length is altered manually by adjusting splined eccentric cams on an splined eccentric shaft. Two fixed cams are provided as standard allowing strokes to be set from 0 to 12.5 mm and 12.5 mm to 25 mm, with a total of eleven discrete positions per cam. A continuously variable double cam arrangement is included, which allows continuous variation of the stroke in the range 0 to 12.5 mm.

    The moving specimen is loaded against the fixed specimen through a lever mechanism actuated by a geared servomotor with in-line spring. The normal force is transmitted directly onto the moving specimen by means of the needle roller cam follower on the carrier head and the running plate on a loading stirrup. A strain gauge transducer is mounted on the lever at a point directly beneath the contact and this measures the applied load.

    Fixed Specimen

    The fixed specimen is located in a stainless steel reservoir. The reservoir is clamped to a block that is heated by four electrical resistance elements and the temperature is monitored by a thermocouple pressed against the side of the specimen or holder. The reservoir can be moved sideways on the heater block so that multiple tests can be performed on one fixed specimen.


    The heater block is mounted on flexures, which are stiff in the vertical (loading) direction, but offer limited resistance to horizontal forces. Movement in the horizontal direction is resisted by a piezo-electric force transducer, which measures the friction forces in the oscillating contact.

    The heated specimen carrier and piezo-electric force transducer are mounted on a common sub-base. This not only provides seismic isolation from machine vibrations at high frequencies but also permits other sub-base assemblies to be fitted to extend the operating range of the machine.Special inserts are available for mounting the ISO Fuel Lubricity Test specimens and other standard specimens.

    Friction Measurement

    The piezo electric transducer used to measure the friction force has a sensitivity of typically 43.5 pC/N and the output range is set to match expected friction levels in the contact. The maximum friction level is +/- 500 N.

    A charge amplifier converts the measured force to a proportional voltage. This is followed by a low pass filter, which fixes the upper cut off frequency of the measuring system. This serves to suppress transducer resonance. Final scaling of the signal for voltage output takes place in a second stage amplifier.

    During higher frequency (>1Hz) operation, the charge amplifier is operated a.c. coupled. This eliminates the effects of d.c. signal drift over long time periods. The signal is passed though a true rms/dc converter amplifier and the final output is the true mean friction force. The instantaneous friction signal may also be logged in bursts using the integral high speed data acquisition interface.

    For low frequency sliding (<1Hz), stick-slip, single pass sliding, work with the Energy Pulse Slide/Roll Adapter and also for calibration of the transducer, the charge amplifier is operated in Quasi-static d.c. coupled mode. This gives signal decay times of up to 100,000s, sufficiently long when compared to typical measurement time scales for the zero not to have moved significantly during the measurement.

    Electrical Contact Resistance Measurement

    The moving specimen carrier is electrically isolated from the drive shaft and therefore from the fixed specimen. This allows a millivolt potential to be applied across the contact using a Lunn-Furey Electrical Contact Resistance Circuit. The voltage signal is taken to a true rms/dc converter amplifier to give a time-smoothed average of the contact potential.

    Variations in this voltage are indicative of the level of metallic contact, provided that both test specimens are conductors of electricity. This measurement may be used for observing the formation of chemical films from anti-wear and extreme pressure lubricants, the breakdown of non-conducting layers and coatings or the build-up of oxides.

    The instantaneous value of contact potential is also available for data logging as high speed data.

    Temperature Measurement

    Many wear processes are driven by temperature, be they the formation of oxides on the surfaces, the transformation of microstructure, the formation or break-down of lubricant additive or other tribochemical films, the melting of the surface (the PV limit of the material) or thermal stress induced failure.

    To be more specific wear occurs as the result of the dissipation of frictional energy in the contact and this is irresistibly accompanied by a rise in temperature. The frictional energy is generated by the combination of load and sliding speed and its distribution and dissipation is influenced by other contacting conditions such as size and relative velocity.

    In the reciprocating contact of the TE 77, sliding velocities are deliberately maintained at low levels in order to minimise frictional heating and, in the case of lubricated tests, to promote boundary lubrication. Minimisation of frictional heating means that contact temperature can be controlled effectively by controlling the bulk temperature of the fixed specimen. The temperature is measured with a thermocouple pressed against the fixed specimen and control is by software PID with PWM output.

    Wear

    This is not directly monitored on the TE 77 and assessments are made from wear scar sizes on the moving specimen and wear volumes on the stationary specimen. Specimen sizes are small enough to be placed in SEM and other surface analysis equipment for detailed chemical analysis of surface films.

    With the optional TE 77/WEAR fitted, a continuous record can be made of the movement of the moving specimen relative to the fixed specimen. This measurement can be used as an indication of the combined wear of both surfaces and for identifying wear transitions.

    Control and Data Acquisition

    The TE 77 has PC based sequence programmable control and data acquisition. This is provided by an integrated Serial Link Interface Module and COMPEND 2000 software running on a host PC, operating under Windows. Data is stored to hard disc in standard spread sheet compatible file formats (.csv or .tsv).

    Sequence Control

    Tests are defined by a sequence of steps, each step containing set-point, data recording rates and alarm level information. Set-points may be adjusted by step change or ramp. The test sequence is followed unless interrupted by the operator or an alarm. Set-points may also be adjusted manually using on screen toggles.

    Low Speed Data

    Analogue input channels are sampled and data logged at a maximum rate of ten samples per second. Time smoothing and averaging functions are provided by in hardware and software.

    RMS Friction

    The standard (low data rate) r.m.s. friction signal is generated by passing the input voltage through a true r.m.s. to d.c. converter. This produces a time smoothed r.m.s. value of the friction force, integrated over a period of just over 1 second. Because the friction force signal approximates to a square wave, the r.m.s. friction signal can be considered as an average friction force as measured over at least one complete cycle, assuming a reciprocating frequency greater than 1 Hz.

    Friction Noise

    By rectifying the instantaneous friction force signal and subtracting the r.m.s. average, a resulting signal corresponding to the perturbations (friction noise) can be produced. If this signal is subsequently passed through a second true r.m.s. to d.c. converter, an r.m.s. signal of friction noise can be generated. This can be used, in real time, as an analogue measure of the friction noise, hence the orderliness or otherwise of the friction signal. By dividing the r.m.s. friction noise value by the r.m.s. friction signal value, a percentage friction noise value (as a derived channel in software) can be generated.

    High Speed Data

    The high speed data acquisition interface provides programmable burst data acquisition of friction, contact potential and stroke position. It is implemented by means of a 16-bit six channel multi-function ADC USB card, with programmable data acquisition rates up to 50 kHz. Data is buffered and stored direct to hard disc with a separate file automatically created for each acquisition cycle. The high speed data file names are automatically inserted as hyperlinks in the standard machine data file so that the high speed data may be viewed at the relevant place in the test.

    Comparisons and Advantages

    Frequency Range

    The maximum frequency on the TE 77 is 50 Hz. It should be noted that the majority of standards relating to reciprocating tribometers call for a test frequency of 50 Hz or less. The frequency range of competing electro-magnetic oscillator driven reciprocating tribometers is often higher (up to 500 Hz), but the amplitude range is lower than the TE 77, with a maximum stroke range typically up to 4 mm (but not over the full frequency range). This is compared with 25 mm on the standard TE 77. The TE 77 will run at 50 Hz at 5 mm and 30 Hz at 15 mm stroke.

    Whereas stroke length has no great significance for basic tests to evaluate the frictional and chemical film forming behaviour of lubricants, stroke length, hence sliding distance, are of great importance when it comes to wear generation. A stroke length of 10 mm is also specified in ASTM G 133.

    Generation of Wear

    Wear is a direct function of sliding distance, hence, the rate of generation of wear is a direct function of the rate of accumulation of sliding distance.

    25 mm Stroke at 20 Hz: 60 m per minute (TE 77)

    15 mm Stroke at 30 Hz: 54 m per minute (TE 77)

    5 mm Stroke at 50 Hz: 30 m per minute (TE 77)

    4 mm Stroke at 50 Hz: 24 m per minute (Typical electro magnetic machine performance)

    1 mm Stroke at 100 Hz: 12 m per minute (Typical electro magnetic machine performance)

    The longer stroke capability of the TE 77 makes it a more effective wear generator than short stroke electro magnetically driven devices. It also allows tests to be performed using variable contact width, hence variable contact pressure, curved edge fixed specimens.

    Entrainment and Wear Debris

    The ability of the moving specimen to “expose” all parts of the fixed specimen depends on the contact length being not more than half the stroke length. In other words, in the case of other devices, with a contact length greater than 2 mm and a maximum stroke of 4 mm, it is apparent that the centre portion of the fixed specimen will be in continuous contact with part of the moving specimen. This has serious implications for lubricant entrainment, for surface activation and for the discharge of wear debris from the contact. Debris can become entrapped and generate an unwanted third body wear mechanism. Because of this, the devices are not entirely satisfactory for adhesive wear tests with area contact specimens.

    Contact Scale

    An important issue with regard to contact scale is how the wear is shared between the two contacting surfaces. Wear is a function of sliding distance. In the case of the moving specimen, the sliding distance is twice the stroke length x number of cycles. For a point on the fixed specimen, the linear wear is twice the contact length x number of cycles. In other words, the wear of the moving specimen is dependent on total sliding distance but the wear on the fixed specimen is dependent on the number of passes and the contact length. It follows that the ratio of wear between the two surfaces depends on both stroke and contact length. In order to model a real tribological contact, this contact scale parameter should be correctly modelled.

    To get the model right, the contact length must be correctly scaled. Hence, running at 25 mm stroke modelling a contact length of 3 mm in an engine with 100 mm stroke, the ring specimen in the test machine should have a contact length of 0.75 mm. To model this at shorter stroke lengths would require a contact length of 0.09 mm, which is not practical.

    The extra stroke length on the TE 77 means that quite a variety of large sliding specimens can be accommodated. This is particularly useful when working with test specimens cut from machine components. The test area is highly accessible and open to design of specialised specimen carriers.

    Very Low Frequencies

    The TE 77 offers, by means of simple interchangeable gearboxes, a minimum frequency down to 0.01 Hz. Electro magnetically driven devices typically offer a minimum operating frequency of 1 Hz. This lower end speed range allows the TE 77 machine to be used for investigating stick-slip and friction-velocity (Stribeck) curve characteristics of lubricants and materials.

    Demonstration Experiments

    1 Is it possible to construct a Friction-Velocity Curve from reciprocating test data?
    2 What is the effect of increasing the fixed specimen hardness in a steel on steel reciprocating line contact?
    3 What effect does running a hard moving specimen on a soft surface have on the quality of the friction signal?
    4 What effect does stroke length have on experiments with a hard specimen running on a soft surface?
    5 What effect does specimen hardness have on the quality of the friction signal?
    7 Is it possible to generate an analogue signal to indicate “disorderly” friction?
    8 How important is material tribological compatibility in lubricated reciprocating sliding line contacts?
    9 Is a sliding point contact test less sensitive to additive concentration than a sliding line contact test?
    10 Is it possible to use the friction noise signal to trigger high speed data to capture friction events?
    11 What is the effect of specimen hardness and a friction modifier on friction noise in a steel on steel reciprocating point contact?
    12 How does contact geometry affect behaviour for contacts with the same nominal contact pressure? Varying ball diameter.
    13 How does contact geometry affect behaviour for contacts at the same nominal contact pressure? Ball on flat versus pin on twin.
    14 How quickly does wear scar grow in a sliding point contact experiment and what affect does this have on nominal contact pressure?
    15 What effect does stopping and starting have on wear, friction and contact potential?
    16 Can we use a stop-start test to deplete the additive and thus make the test more sensitive to additive concentration?
    17 Why is a sliding point contact test less sensitive to additive concentration than a sliding line contact test?
    18 What effect do DLC coatings have on a simply lubricated contact, in reciprocating sliding?
    19 What effect do organic friction modifiers have on a DLC on steel simply lubricated contact, in reciprocating sliding?
    20 What effect does a Friction modifier have on a steel on steel reciprocating contact lubricated with PAO base oil?

    Optional Accessories

    TE 77/SRC Adjustable Radius Piston Ring Clamp

    The ring clamp allows the curvature to be adjusted to allow ring samples to conform with liner samples. The standard clamp can accommodate rings of diameter 90 to 110 mm.The clamp back plate (green) is mounted on a bush (black), which is mounted in turn on the machines reciprocating shaft. The bush is free to rotate allowing axial alignment between the ring and liner sample. The clamp back plate incorporates two tensioning screws, which engage with the ends of the ring sample; tightening these tensions the ring against the lower side of the bush. The ring is clamped in place by a clamp plate (red). The gap between the two halves of the clamp is adjusted by set screws.

    The reciprocating shaft has a hollow bore and connection for an oil feed. The bore communicates via oil-ways in the bush and clamp components to small jets either side of the ring sample. This allows lubricant to be added in small volumes to either side of the ring sample.

    A larger clamp has been designed to accommodate rings up to 200 mm diameter. Use of this sized ring requires modification of the lubricant bath to reduce the side wall height.

    TE 77/TRC Adjustable Radius Twin Piston Ring Clamp

    This arrangement allows two adjustable radius ring clamps to be mounted in series so that tests can be run with two ring samples on a common liner section sample. 

    TE 77/PT Pin on Twin Test Bath

    The pin on twin test bath allows tests to be performed with a self-locating crossed cylinder geometry. This is a technique originally developed by Dr Peter Blau at Oakridge National Laboratories.

    TE 77/WEAR On-Line Wear Monitoring System

    TE 77/WEAR is a high-resolution capacitance proximity measuring system. Output from the device is in the form of a DC voltage proportional to displacement, suitable for data acquisition on a PC.

    A capacitance non-contact probe is mounted in the moving specimen carrier. The probe is mounted approximately 0.5 mm away from a reference surface mounted on the edge of the specimen bath. The capacitance of the gap is converted to a dc voltage by a charge amplifier. The voltage is passed through a true rms/dc converter to provide the mean gap value over the length of the stroke.

    The variations in the gap due to wear, lubricant film formation, thermal expansion or a combination of these are picked up by the system. The fact that the gap is small ensures that temperature effects are limited to the thermal expansion over that length.

    The measuring resolution is greatest when the temperature of the fixed specimen is held constant. The TE 77/WEAR system is ideal for establishing long-term wear rates and transition points.

    TE 77/GB/20 Gearbox for 20:1

     

    This gearbox mounts between the drive motor and camshaft, providing a 20:1 reduction in operating frequency. The low sliding speeds generated encourage the contact to operate in boundary lubrication conditions. The option is therefore useful when testing additives and lubricant formulations.

    TE 77/GB/100 Gearbox for 100:1 Reduction

    This gearbox mounts between the drive motor and camshaft, providing a 100:1 reduction in operating frequency. The very low sliding speeds generated ensure that the contact operates in boundary lubrication conditions. The option is used for studying static friction and stick-slip of lubricants for slide-ways, clutches and the like. Specimens are available for stick-slip testing.

    TE 77/HR Heated Piston Ring Sample Carrier

    The TE 77/HR is a replacement reciprocating specimen carrier with integral heating, designed to allow tests to be run with a differential temperature between the moving ring specimen and the fixed liner specimen. The ring sample is self-heating to 200°C and is normally used in conjunction with liner sample temperature controlled by the fixed specimen heater block to less than this value.

    TE 77/INERT Gas Enclosure


    The TE 77/INERT Gas Enclosure is an anodised aluminium chamber that fits in place of the standard heater bath and encloses the fixed and moving specimens. The reciprocating specimen carrier is sealed by a rubber bellows fitted between the reciprocating drive assembly and the chamber. Load is applied through a flexible membrane in the top of the chamber.

    Inlet and outlet pipe fittings and a length of pipe are provided for connection to a customer’s inert gas supply. A water manometer is used to measure the gas pressure in the enclosure. Specimen temperatures in the chamber are limited to 200°C.

    This option is used for investigating the effects of ambient gas or moisture on friction and wear. Inert gases, water vapour and mildly corrosive gases may be used.

    TE 77/COOLER

    This replaces the standard fixed specimen heater block assembly with a cooler pad. A laboratory refrigeration unit delivers pressurised refrigerant direct to an expansion probe, embedded in the cooler pad, removing the requirement for an intermediate heat transfer fluid. This arrangement allows temperatures from ambient to -50°C to be achieved. To avoid ice formation, a test enclosure is included, fed with cool and dry air, delivered via a vortex cooler and a desiccant tube. A compressed air supply is required.

    TE 77/800C High Temperature Heater

    On the TE 77 the heated specimen carrier and piezo-electric force transducer are mounted on a common sub-base. To carry out high temperature experiments this is replaced with the separate TE 77/800C sub-base assembly. Key components of this assembly are made from Inconel (for high temperature performance) and a thermal barrier ensures that the flexures and piezo-electric force transducer are not exposed to excessive temperature.

    The standard reciprocating specimen carrier head is also replaced by a carrier made from Inconel. This has a “C” shape, permitting the specimens to be enclosed inside a shroud and the load to be transmitted through a roller bearing outside this enclosure.

    Specimens can be mounted either in the standard sample bath for dry or lubricated tests up to 600°C or on a special platform for high temperature un-lubricated tests. A stainless steel shroud is provided to help reduce heat loss by radiation and convection at the high temperatures.

    This option may be provided as a retrofit assembly comprising heater block and four 200 W heaters, flexures and piezo-electric force transducer all mounted on a separate sub-base. The heaters are wired into the same connector as the standard heaters once these have been removed.

    TE 77/PUMP Peristaltic Pump and Drip Feed System

    The TE 77/PUMP drip feed system uses a variable speed peristaltic pump. The advantages of this system are that there is no cross-contamination between pump and fluid, fluids are not exposed to high shear rates, it is self-priming and safe under dry running. By selecting a range of tube bore diameters a very wide range of flow rates are achievable. With a single size of tube the pump has a 110:1 turn ratio.

    The package includes the peristaltic pump controller and pump head, three sizes of pump tubing and universal pipe fittings. An adaptor is provided for use with the standard moving specimen carrier clamps. This allows a PTFE tube to be mounted on the carrier to direct lubricant onto the contact zone.

    This option is used in additives screening and lubricant development programs to provide fresh lubricant to the contact over long time periods. This is particularly important if tests are being carried out at temperatures where oxidation or evaporation of the sample is accelerated.

    TE 77/PIEZO Fretting Test Adapter

    This adapter replaces the standard reciprocating drive assembly with a piezo actuator drive system. This is for performing fretting tests at strokes from 10 to 100 microns with frequencies up to 100 Hz with control of mid-stroke position and amplitude to +/-0.2 microns.

    The system includes a high pre-load piezostack, servo amplifier and signal generator, capacitance displacement gauge, 250 kHz 16-bit 16 channel multi-function ADC (not required if TE 77/HSD is already installed) and C-flex mounted moving specimen carrier. Simultaneous high speed data acquisition of friction force and displacement allows force-displacement curves to be plotted.

    TE 77/PD Pin on Disc Test Adapter

    The TE 77/PD Pin on Disc Adapter replaces the standard reciprocating head on the machine and allows the performance of conventional pin on disc tests, using the machines drive motor and automatic loading system.

    TE 77 Slide/Roll Adapters

    Many wear and failure mechanisms in gears and valve trains can be modelled with sliding-rolling contacts, in which the point of contact moves on both surfaces. The development of the “Energy Pulse” (EP) criterion led to the development of two slide-roll adapters for the TE 77.

    TE 77 EP-CAM

    In this arrangement, a plate specimen is reciprocated against a rotating roller in what has been termed a “Reciprocating Amsler” test configuration. This produces asymmetrical lubricant entrainment: positive with the surface of the plate and roller moving in the same direction and, depending on relative speeds, negative when moving in opposite directions, hence a model for the kind of entrainment conditions occurring in a cam-follower contact. No point on either specimen remains in continuous contact.The adapter uses the standard 25 mm stroke cam drive and loading system. It is supplied on an sub-base, interchangeable with the standard TE 77 heated specimen carrier and piezo-electric force transducer sub-base. The TE 77/EP-CAM test roller is mounted on the output shaft of a worm gearbox and runs in a heated lubricant reservoir. The reservoir is supported on flexures and a piezo-electric force transducer measures the horizontal (traction) forces in the contact. The enclosure is provided with an integral electric heater and thermocouple to enable tests with bulk fluid temperatures up to 100°C.

    The worm gearbox with has a 2:1 speed reduction and the input shaft is connected via a 1:2 ratio bevel gearbox to a servo-motor. The rotational speed of the roller can be adjusted independently of the reciprocating rate of the plate, allowing a range of different varying entrainment velocities to be set. In addition to adjusting the varying slide/roll ratio by adjusting the rotational speed and reciprocating frequency, the stoke length can of course be adjusted.

    The upper plate specimen is secured to a pivoted yoke on the reciprocating drive. This ensures that the plate aligns with the roller with an even load distribution across the contact width. The load is transferred to the reciprocating arm by the usual method of the needle roller cam follower running against a plate on the lower side of the loading yoke.

    TE 77 EP-GEAR

    In this arrangement, a roller is reciprocated against a plate specimen and a rocking motion induced by a linkage mechanism. The entrainment velocity varies with stroke, symmetrically about the mid-stroke position. The result is that the point of contact moves on both specimens, similar to gear teeth sliding and rolling about the pitch point. No point on either specimen remains in continuous contact. 

     

    The adapter replaces the standard machine reciprocating head and thus uses the standard 25 mm stroke cam drive, loading system and fixed specimen assembly. Slide-roll ratio is adjusted by altering the position of the link arms.

    TE 77/LLA Dead Weight Low Load Adapter

    There are a number of test procedures requiring low levels of normal load. These include tests on coatings and soft layers, the evaluation of the lubricity of fluids and the ISO/DIS 12156-2 Fuel Lubricity Test. The standard automatic loading system has a loading threshold of 5 N. The Low Load Adapter can apply loads down to fractions of a Newton, although the minimum resolvable friction forces are at a level of 2 N normal load.

    The Low Load Adapter applies dead weight loading to a ball (point contact) moving test specimen. The adapter uses a balanced beam and a push rod running through a linear bearing in a modified specimen carrier. This ensures that the load remains vertically above the ball across the whole stroke. The design limits the stroke to 2 mm with this adapter.

    TE 77/TB ISO Test Bath

    This test bath is for use in conjunction with TE 77/LLA for performing tests using standard ISO Fuel Lubricity Test specimens.

    TE 77/D5706/7 Fixed Specimen Bath

    TE 77/D5706/7 Fixed Specimen Bath, in conjunction with the standard reciprocating head, allows fixed and moving specimens as specified in ASTM D5706 and D5707to be accommodated.

    TE 77/CAL Calibration Kit for Load and Friction

    The two most important parameters to calibrate on the TE 77 are the normal load and the friction force. TE 77/CAL provides a pivoted beam with dead weights able to apply up to 1,000 N to the loading system and a pulley, cord and weights to apply a tangential force to the specimen bath to check the friction measurement.



  • Technical Specifications

    Technical Specifications
    Contact Configurations: Ball on Plate (Point Contact)
    Cylinder on Plate (Line Contact)
    Area Contact
    Optional Configurations: Piston-Ring and Cylinder Liner
    ISO Fuel Test Specimens
    Load Range: 5 to 1000 N
    Loading Rate: 50 N/s
    Temperature Range: Ambient to 600°C
    Heating Power: 800 W
    Temperature Sensor: k-type thermocouple
    Frequency Range: 2 to 50 Hz
    Stroke Range: See following tables
    Contact Potential: 50 mV dc signal
    Friction Transducer: Piezo-Electric Type
    Force Range: – 500 to 500 N
    Stroke Transducer: Magneto Inductive
    Maximum Stroke: 25 mm
    Linearity: 0.50%
    Low Speed Interface: Serial Link Interface Module
    Resolution: 12 bit
    Number of Input Channels: 1 to 8
    Number of Output Channels: 1 to 4
    Maximum Data Rate: 10 Hz
    High Speed Interface: USB
    Resolution: 16 bit
    Number of Input Channels: 6
    Maximum Data Rate: Six channels at 50 kHz
    Software: COMPEND 2000
    Motor: 1.1 kW a.c. vector motor with 2048 ppr encoder
    Plate Specimen: 38 mm x 58 mm x 4 mm thick (typical)
    Point Contact: 6 mm, 3/8 inch and 10 mm diameter ball
    Line Contact: 6 mm diameter x 16 mm long pin
    Area Contact: 12 mm diameter x 4 mm thick disc
    Stroke Range:
    Continuously Variable Cam – 0 to 12.5 mm
    Angle – degrees: Minimum – mm Maximum – mm
    0 0 2
    18 1.04 3.04
    36 2.65 4.65
    54 4.25 6.25
    72 5.75 7.75
    90 7.09 9.09
    108 8.24 10.24
    126 9.17 11.17
    144 9.85 11.85
    162 10.26 12.26
    180 10.4 12.4
    Step Variable 0 to 12.5 mm:
    Angle – degrees: Nominal Stroke – mm
    0 0
    18 1.94
    36 3.83
    54 5.63
    72 7.29
    90 8.77
    108 10.03
    126 11.05
    144 11.79
    162 12.25
    180 12.5
    Step Variable 12.5 to 25 mm:
    Angle – degrees: Nominal Stroke – mm
    0 12.5
    18 13.05
    36 14.26
    54 15.97
    72 17.89
    90 19.8
    108 21.54
    126 23
    144 24.09
    162 24.77
    180 25
    Controlled Parameters
    Frequency
    Load
    Temperature
    Test Duration
    Measured Parameters
    Load Low speed data
    Friction (rms) Low speed data
    Friction (instantaneous) High speed data
    Friction Noise (time smoothed) Low speed data
    Contact Potential (time smoothed) Low speed data
    Contact Potential (instantaneous) High speed data
    Stroke Position (instantaneous) High speed data
    Temperature Low speed data
    Frequency Low speed data
    Number of Cycles Low speed data
    Wear (with TE 77/WEAR) Low speed data
    Derived Parameters
    Friction Coefficient Low speed data
    Real-time Graphs
    All low speed data (user selectable)
    Burst high speed data (user selectable)
    ACCESSORIES & ADAPTERS
    TE 77/WEAR On-Line Wear Monitoring System
    Contact Configurations: Ball on Plate
    Cylinder on Plate
    Area Contact
    Piston Ring on Liner
    Displacement Range: 0 to 1 mm
    Resolution: 0.2µm
    Accuracy: within 3 %
    Allowed Temperature: – 20°C to 200°C
    Output Range: 1 mV = 1µm
    TE 77/GEAR/20 Gearbox for 20:1 Reduction
    Frequency Range: 0.1 Hz to 2.5 Hz
    TE 77/GEAR/100 Gearbox for 1001 Reduction
    Frequency Range: 0.02 Hz to 0.5 Hz
    TE 77/HR Heated Piston Ring Sample Carrier
    Load Range: 5 to 1000 N
    Self Heating Temperature: 200°C
    TE 77/INERT Gas Enclosure
    Maximum Pressure: 120 mm water
    Maximum Temperature: 200°C
    TE 77/COOLER Cooler Pad
    Minimum Temperature: -50°C
    TE 77/800C High Temperature Heater
    Contact Configurations: Ball on Plate
    Cylinder on Plate
    Area Contact
    Plate Size: 30 mm diameter x 4 mm thick
    Temperature Range: ambient to 800°C
    Heating Power: 800 W
    Temperature Sensor: k-type thermocouple
    TE 77/PUMP Peristaltic Pump and Drip Feed
    Maximum Pump Speed: 55 rpm
    Turn-Down Ratio: 110:01:00
    Flow Rates: 0.02 to 2.3 ml/min with 0.5 mm bore tube
    0.06 to 6.7 ml/min with 0.8 mm bore tube
    0.22 to 24 ml/min with 1.6 mm bore tube
    Tube Wall Thickness: 1 mm
    TE 77/PIEZO Fretting Test Adapter
    Type of Contact: Ball/Flat
    Flat/Flat
    Line/Flat
    Type of Movement: Sine, Square and Triangular
    Load: 5 to 1000 N
    Friction Force: +/-500 N Maximum
    Stroke – continuously variable: 10 microns to 100 microns
    Resolution: +/-0.2 microns
    Frequency – continuously variable: 1 Hz to 100 Hz
    Maximum stroke at 100 Hz: 30 microns
    Maximum stroke at 50 Hz: 60 microns
    Maximum stroke at 20 Hz: 100 microns
    TE 77/PD Pin on Disc Adapter
    Contact Configurations: Pin on Disc
    Ball on Disc
    Specimen Holders: 8 mm and 5.5 mm diameter pins
    10 mm and 6 mm diameter balls
    Disc Diameter: 75 mm
    Track Radius: 0 to 35 mm
    Fluid Temperature: Ambient to 200°C
    Heating Power: 800 W
    Temperature sensor: k-type thermocouple
    Drive Ratio: 3:1 reduction
    Rotation Speed: 20 to 1,000 rpm
    Sliding Velocity: 0.08 to 3.6 m/s
    Maximum Torque: 4.5 Nm
    Normal Load: 50 to 1,000 N (with 500 N Autoloader)
    Friction Force Range: 1,000 N
    Signal Conditioning: Strain Gauge Amplifier Module
    TE 77/EP-CAM Slide/Roll Adapter
    Contact Configuration: Plate on Cylinder (Line Contact)
    Roller Specimen Diameter: 35 mm
    Roller Width: 10 mm
    Plate Specimen: 50 mm x 12 mm x 3 mm
    Load Range: 1000 N
    Stroke Range: 25 mm
    Maximum Frequency: 20 Hz
    Maximum Rotational Speed: 1000 rpm
    Servo Motor Power: 400 W
    Temperature Range: ambient to 100°C
    Heating Power: 200 W
    Temperature Sensor: k-type thermocouple
    TE 77/EP-GEAR Slide/Roll Adapter
    Contact Configuration: Plate on Cylinder (Line Contact)
    Roller Specimen Diameter: 42 mm
    Roller Width: 5 mm
    Load Range: 1000 N
    Stroke Range: 25 mm
    Maximum Frequency: 10 Hz
    TE 77/LLA Dead Weight Low Load Adapter
    Contact Configuration: Ball on Plate
    Ball Diameter: 6 mm
    Load Range: 2 to 20 N by dead weight
    Allowed Stroke: 0 to 2 mm
    Maximum Frequency: 50 Hz
    TE 77/D5706/7 Specimen Bath
    Specimen: 24 mm Diameter x 7.85 mm Specimen (ASTM D5706/7)
    Services
    Electricity: 220/240 V, single phase, 50/60 Hz, 3.2 kW
    Installation
    Floor-standing machine: 900 mm x 900 mm x 600 mm high, 250 kg
    Packing Specifications: 1.33 m3, GW 410 kg, NW 310 kg



  • Publications for TE 77 High Frequency Friction Machine

    Paper # 1 A Reciprocating Wear Test for Evaluating Boundary Lubrication
    Sheasby J S, Caughlin T A, Blahey A G, Laycock K F,
    Tribology International, 1990, 23(5), p. 301-307.
    Paper # 2 Testing EP and Anti-Wear Performance of Gear Lubricants
    Alliston-Greiner A F,
    Proc. I. Mech. E., J. Aerospace Eng., 1991, 205, p. 89-101.
    Paper # 3 Compositional Changes in Lubricated Sliding Metal Surfaces Related to Seizure
    Johanssen E, Hogmark S, Nilsson H, Redelius P,
    Proc. 5th Int. Congress on Tribology, Eurotrib 1989, Vol. 1, p. 174-180.
    Paper # 4 Modifications of Electron Properties of Friction Surfaces in Boundary Lubrication
    Morizur M F, Briant J,
    Proc. I. Mech. E., Tribology – Friction, Lubrication and Wear, Fifty Years On, 1987, p. 447-454.
    Paper # 5 Electrical Phenomena Associated with Boundary Lubricated Friction
    Morizur M F, Briant J,
    Proc. 5th Int. Congress on Tribology, Eurotrib 1989, Vol. 5, p. 272-279.
    Paper # 6 In-Situ Electro-charging for Friction Reduction and Wear Resistant Film Formation
    Tung S C, Wang S-C S,
    STLE Tribology Conference, Toronto, October 7-10, 1990.
    Paper # 7 The Transition Between Mild and Severe Wear for Boundary Lubricated Steels
    Samuels B, Richards M N,
    ASME Journal Of Tribology, 1991, 113, p. 65-72.
    Paper # 8 Sliding Friction and Wear Behaviour of Several Nickel Aluminide Alloys Under Dry and Lubricated Conditions
    Blau P J, De Vore C E,
    Tribology International, 1990, 23(4), p. 226-234.
    Paper # 9 Addition of Solid Lubricants to Grease: Influence of Solid Content and Powder Characteristics on Sliding Friction and Wear
    Fatkin J, Cron A,
    ITC, Nagoya, 1990, 2F1-2, p.1101-1106.
    Paper # 10 Routine Engine Tests – Can We Reduce Their Number ?
    Plint M A, Alliston-Greiner A F,
    Petroleum Review, July 1990, p. 368-370.
    Paper # 11 Development of Fuel Wear Tests Using the Cameron-Plint High Frequency Reciprocating Machine
    Kanakia M D, Cuellar Jr J P, Lestz S J,
    Belvoir Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility SwRI Report No. BFLRF 262, May 1989.
    Paper # 12 Test Procedure for Rapid Assessment of Frictional Properties of Engine Oils at Elevated Temperatures
    Plint A G, Plint M A,
    Tribology International, 1984, 17(4), p. 209-213.
    Paper # 13 A New Technique or the Investigation of Stick-Slip
    Plint A G, Plint M A,
    Tribology International, 1985, 18(4), p. 247-249.
    Paper # 14 Development of Wear-Resistant Ceramic Coatings for In-Cylinder Diesel Engine Components
    Naylor M G S, Fear M P,
    Presented at Coatings for Advanced Heat Engines Workshop, Castine, Maine, August 6-9 1990.
    Paper # 15 Wear Resistant Ceramic Coatings
    Naylor M G S,
    Presented at US Department of Energy Annual Automotive Technology Development Contractor’s Coordination Meeting, Dearborn, Michigan, October 22-25, 1990., SAE P-243, 273-281.
    Paper # 16 Fuel Lubricity Requirements for Diesel Injection Systems
    Lacey P I, Lestz S J,
    Belvoir Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility SwRI Report No. BFLRF 270, Feb 1991.
    Paper # 17 Overbased Lubricant Detergents – A Comparative Study of Conventional Technology and a New Class of Product
    O’Conner S P, Crawford J, Cane C,
    Proc. 7th International Colloquium, Automotive Lubrication, Esslingen, January 1990, Paper 12.15, 1-16.
    Paper # 18 A Tribological Study of Overbased Detergents
    O’Conner S P, Crawford J, Moore A J,
    Proc. 8th International Colloquium, Tribology 2000, Esslingen, January 1992, Paper 7.7, 1-13.
    Paper # 19 Untersuchung zur Tribologie von Flugturbinenolen unter Mischreibungsbedingungen (Tribological Investigations of Aviation Turbine Oils under Mixed Lubrication Conditions)
    Schroeder H, Jantzen E,
    Proc. 8th International Colloquium, Tribology 2000, Esslingen, January 1992, Paper 19.10, 1-16.
    Paper # 20 The Removal of Substrate Material through Thick Zinc Dithiophosphate Anti-Wear Films
    Bell J C, Delargy K M, Seeney A M,
    Proc. Leeds-Lyon Symposium, Wear Particles, Dowson et al. (eds), 1992, Elsevier, Paper IX(ii), p. 387-396.
    Paper # 21 Lubrication Influences on the Wear of Piston-Ring Coatings
    Bell J C, Delargy K M,
    Proceedings of the 16th Leeds-Lyon Symposium, Mechanics of Coatings, 1989, p. 371-377.
    Paper # 22 The Use of a Laboratory Wear Simulation Technique for the Development of Marine Cylinder Lubricants
    Davis F A, Moore A J, Pridmore S,
    Presented at CIMAC ’93, 1993.
    Paper # 23 The Development of a Reciprocating Rig Technique to Assess the Stick-Slip Properties of Slideway Lubricants
    Coates D A,
    I. Mech. E. The Mission of Tribology Research, December 1992 (unpublished).
    Paper # 24 Bench Wear Testing of Engine Power Cylinder Components
    Patterson D J, Hill S H, Tung S C,
    Lubrication Engineering, 1993, 49(2), p. 89-95.
    Paper # 25 Diamond-like Carbon Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V
    Kustas F M, Misra M S, Wei R, Wilbur P J,
    Tribology Transactions, 1993, 36(1), p.113-119.
    Paper # 26 Antiwear Mechanism of Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphates Added to Paraffinic Oil in the Boundary Lubrication Condition
    So H, Lin Y C, Huang G G S, Cherney T S T,
    Wear 1993, 166, p.17-26.
    Paper # 27 Fuel Efficiency Screening Tests for Automotive Engine Oils
    Moore A J,
    SAE 932689, 1993 (also in SAE SP-996, Tribological Insights and Performance Characteristics of Modern Engine Lubricants)
    Paper # 28 The Impact of Organomolybdenum Compounds on The Frictional Characteristics of Crankcase Engine Oils
    Stipanovic A J, Schoonmaker J P,
    SAE 932779, 1993 (also in SAE SP-996, Tribological Insights and Performance Characteristics of Modern Engine Lubricants)
    Paper # 29 A Retrospective Survey of the Use of Laboratory Tests to Simulate Internal Combustion Engine Materials Tribology Problems
    Blau P J,
    ASTM STP 1199, Tribology: Wear Test Selection for Design and Application, Ruff A. W. and Bayer R. G. (eds), 1993.
    Paper # 30 Microstructures and Tribological Characteristics of Electron-Beam Co-Deposited Ag/Mo Thin Film Coatings
    Tung S C, Cheng Y-T,
    Wear 1993, 162-164, p. 763-772.
    Paper # 31 A New Technique to Enhance Film-Coating Process by Electrochemical Reaction in Oil-Based Media
    Wang S-C S, Tung S C,
    STLE Trans., 1994, 37(1), p. 175-181.
    Paper # 32 Extreme Pressure and Anti-Wear Properties of Lubricants: A Critical Study of Current Test Methods and Suggestions for the Future
    Plint M A, Alliston-Greiner A F,
    ASTM STP 1199, Tribology: Wear Test Selection for Design and Application, Ruff A. W. and Bayer R. G. (eds), 1993.
    Paper # 33 Surface and Tribological Characterization of Coatings for Friction and Wear Reduction
    Simko S J, Militello M C, Tung S C,
    SAE 932787, 1993. Also SAE SP-996, Tribological Insights and Performance Characteristics of Modern Engine Lubricants SAE Technical Papers Document Number: 932787
    Paper # 34 A Diamond-like Carbon Film for Wear Protection of Steel
    Harris S J, Tung S C, Simko M C,
    International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, San Diego, 1993.
    Paper # 35 Development of a Bench Wear Test for the Evaluation of Engine Cylinder Components and the Correlation with Engine Test Results
    Hartfield-Wünsch S E, Tung S C, Rivard C J,
    SAE 932693, 1993 (also in SAE SP-996, Tribological Insights and Performance Characteristics of Modern Engine Lubricants)
    Paper # 36 Polymer Esters and Their Synergy with ZDDP – A Possibility to Reduce ZDDP Content in Lubricants?
    Wallfahrer U,
    9th International Colloquium, Ecological and Economical Aspects of Tribology, Esslingen, Paper 11.14, 1-10.
    Paper # 37 Development of a Laboratory Test to Predict Lubricity Properties of Diesel Fuels and Its Application to the Development of Highly Refined Diesel Fuels
    Spikes H A, Meyer K, Bovington C, Caprotti R,, Krieger K,
    9th International Colloquium, Ecological and Economical Aspects of Tribology, 1994, Paper 3.11, 1-16.
    Paper # 38 Wear of spheroidal graphite cast irons for tractor drive train components
    M Beltowksi, PJ Blau, J Qu
    Wear Volume 267, Issues 9-10, 9 September 2009, p. 1752-1756
    Paper # 39 Evaluation of a High Frequency Reciprocating Wear Test for Measuring Diesel Fuel Lubricity
    Hadley J W, Owen G C, Mills B,
    SAE 932692, (also in SAE SP-996)
    Paper # 40 Gear Box Oil Test Procedures: A Critical Study
    Alliston-Greiner A F, Plint M A,
    CEC/93/TL02, Proceedings of 4th International Symposium on the Performance Evaluation of Automotive Fuels and Lubricants, 1993.
    Paper # 41 The Investigation of ZDTP Anti-Wear Additive Surface Morphologies by Coupling Atomic Force Microscopy with Friction Measurements
    Mowlem J, Laurion T, Landol M,
    STLE Preprint 94-PS-3G-6, 49th STLE Annual Meeting, 1994.
    Paper # 42 Development of a Lubricity Test Based on the Transition from Boundary Lubrication to Severe Adhesive Wear in Fuels
    Lacey P I,
    STLE Preprint 94-AM-5J-1, 49th STLE Annual Meeting, Pittsburg, 1994.
    Paper # 43 Scale Effects in Sliding Friction: An Experimental Study
    Blau P J,
    Fundamentals of Friction: Macroscopic and Microscopic Processes, Singer I. L. and Pollock H. M. (eds), Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.
    Paper # 44 Wear-Reducing Surface Films Formed by a Fluorinated Sulfonamide Additives in a Chlorotrifluoroethylene-Based Fluid
    Cavdar B, Sharma S K, Gschwender L J,
    STLE Preprint 94-AM-3G-1, 49th STLE Annual Meeting, Pittsburg, 1994.
    Paper # 45 Wear Control in Automotive Diesel Engines
    Cooper D, Moore A J,
    Austrib ’94, 4th International Tribology Conference, Perth, 1994.
    Paper # 46 The Influence of Boundary Films on Lubricant Anti-Scuff Performance
    Cooper D, Moore A J,
    21st Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Lubricants and Lubrication, Dowson et al. (eds), Elsevier, 1995, p. 617-633.
    Paper # 47 The Composition and Structure of Model Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate Anti-Wear Films
    Bell J C, Delargy K M,
    6th International Congress on Tribology, Eurotrib 93, 1993.
    Paper # 48 Application of Thin Layer Activation to Lubricant Evaluation: On-Line Monitoring of Wear on a Reciprocating Test Bench
    Delvigne T, Oxorn K,
    Industrial Diagnostic Services Report, 6, rue J. Lenoir, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 1993.
    Paper # 49 Wear of Piston Rings and Liners By Laboratory Simulation
    Ralph Slone, Donald J Patterson, Kevin M Morrison, George B Schwartz
    SAE Paper – 890146 – 02/01/1989
    Paper # 50 Study of Tribochemical Film Formation using X-Ray Absorption and Photoelectron Spectroscopies
    Kasrai M, Fuller M, Scaini M, Yin Z, Brunner R W, Bancroft G M, Fleet M E, Fyfe K, Tan K H,
    21st Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology, Lubricants and Lubrication, Dowson et al. (eds), Elsevier, 1995, p. 659-669.
    Paper # 51 On the Prediction of the Anti-Wear Performance of an Engine Oil
    Jarnias F, Du Parquet J,
    Proceedings of the XI NCIT, January 22-25, 1995, p. 409-414.
    Paper # 52 Friction and Wear of Carbon-Graphite Materials Against Metal and Ceramic Counterfaces
    Blau P J, Martin R L,
    Tribology International, 1994, 27(6), p. 413-422.
    Paper # 53 Machines and Methodologies for Wear Testing Extreme Pressure and Anti-Wear Properties of Lubricants
    Plint A G,
    Proceedings of the XI NCIT, January 22-25, 1995, p. 375-386.
    Paper # 54 Dry Lubrication Using a Composite Coating
    Ebdon P R,
    Proc. I. Mech. E., C130/87, p.537-542
    Paper # 55 Electroless Nickel/PTFE Composites
    Ebdon P R,
    SAE 880875, 24th Annual Aerospace/Airline Plating and Metal Finishing Forum, 1988.
    Paper # 56 Laboratory Screening Tests for Low Sulphur Diesel Fuel Lubricity
    Cooper D,
    Lubrication Science, 1995, 7 (2), p. 133-148.
    Paper # 57 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Plasma Sprayed Mo and Co Alloy Coating Layers (IN KOREAN)
    Nam T-H, Hur G-C, Lee S W, Ha G-H, Kim B-K,
    Journal of the Korean Inst. Metals and Materials, 1995, 33 (4), p. 556-562.
    Paper # 58 Wear with Low-Lubricity Fuels I. Development of a Wear Mapping Technique
    Lacey P I,
    Wear 1993, 160, p. 325-332.
    Paper # 59 Wear Behaviour of Plasma-Sprayed Partially Stabilized Zirconia on a Steel Substrate
    Ahn H-S, Kwon O-K,
    Wear 1993, 162-164, p. 636-644.
    Paper # 60 The Influence of Interfacial Potential on Friction and Wear in an Aqueous Drilling Mud
    Brandon N P, Wood R J K,
    Wear 1993, 170, p. 33-38.
    Paper # 61 Tribochemistry of a PFPAE Fluid on M-50 Surfaces by FTIR Spectroscopy
    Liang J C, Helmick L S,
    Tribology Transactions, 1996, 39 (3), p. 705-709.
    Paper # 62 Effect of Humidity on Friction and Wear for a Linear Perfluoropolyalkylether Fluid under Boundary Lubrication Conditions
    Helmick L S, Sharma S K,
    Lubrication Engineering, 1996, 52 (6), p. 437-442.
    Paper # 63 Bench Wear Testing of Common Gasoline Engine Cylinder Bore Surface/Piston Ring Combinations
    Hill S H, Hartfield-Wünsch S E, Tung S C,
    STLE Preprint 96-AM-6C-2, 1996, 1-7.
    Paper # 64 The Influence of Composition on the Lubricity of Diesel Fuels
    Hadley J W, Mills B,
    CEC/93/EF12, 4th International Symposium on the Performance Evaluation of Automotive Fuels and Lubricants, 1993.
    Paper # 71 Prediction of ASTM Sequence VI and VIA Fuel Economy Based on Laboratory Bench Tests
    Gangopadhay A K, Sorab J, Willermet P A, Schriewer K, Fyfe K, Lai P K S,
    SAE 961140, 1996.
    Paper # 87 Frictional Properties of Organomolybdenum Compounds in the Presence of ZDTPs under Sliding Conditions
    Muraki M, Wada H,
    in “Lubricants and Lubrication”, Dowson et al. eds., Elsevier, 1995, 409-422.
    Paper # 88 Accelerated Wear of Ceramics Assisted by Tribochemical Effects
    Kaur R G, Stolarski T A, Coates D A, Gelder A,
    presented at First World Tribology Congress, Institution of Mechanical Engineers Conference C491, September 1997.
    Paper # 93 Influences of Lubricant Properties on ASTM Sequence VI and Sequence VI-A Fuel Efficiency Performance
    Moore A J,
    SAE Paper 961138, 1996, 1-12.
    Paper # 94 Reliable Model of Lubricant-Related Friction in Internal Combustion Engines
    Benchaita M T, Lockwood F E,
    Lubrication Science, 5(4), 1993, 259-280.
    Paper # 96 Effects of Surface Grinding Conditions on the Reciprocating Friction and Wear Behaviour of Silicon Nitride
    Blau P J, Martin R L, Zanoria E S,
    Wear 203-204, 1997, 648-657.
    Paper # 99 Tribological Behaviour of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia Coatings
    Ahn H-S, Kim J-Y, Lim D-S,
    Wear 203-204, 1997, 77-87.
    Paper # 101 Prediction of the Lubrication and Wear of Piston Rings – Theoretical Model
    Priest M, Dowson D, Taylor C M,
    presented at First World Tribology Congress, Institution of Mechanical Engineers Conference C491, September 1997.
    Paper # 102 The Utilization of Novel Bench Screening Techniques in the Development of Antiwear Additives for Lubricants
    Migdal C A, Rowland R G, Baranski J R,
    presented at First World Tribology Congress, Institution of Mechanical Engineers Conference C491, September 1997.
    Paper # 103 Sliding Wear of Plasma-Sprayed Chromium Oxide-Silica Coating
    Ahn H-S, Lee S K,
    presented at First World Tribology Congress, Institution of Mechanical Engineers Conference C491, September 1997.
    Paper # 108 Mechanisms of Tribochemical Film Formation: Stability of Tribo- and Thermally- Generated ZDDP Films
    Bancroft G M, Kasrai M, Fuller M, Yin Z, Fyfe K, Tan K H,
    Tribology Letters March 1997 Volume 3 – No 1 – 47-51
    Paper # 109 Low ZDDP High Performance Semisynthetic Automotive Engine Oils Using Polymer Esters as an Antiwear Booster
    Wallfahrer U, Bowen L,
    Lubrication Engineering, 53(12), 1997, 23-28.
    Paper # 110 Application of Soft X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy in Chemical Characterization of Antiwear Films Generated by ZDDP Part I: The Effects of Physical Parameters.
    Yin K, Kasrai M, Fuller M, Bancroft G M, Fyfe K, Tan K H,
    Wear 202, 1997, 172-191.
    Paper # 111 Application of Soft X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy in Chemical Characterisation of Antiwear Films Generated by ZDDP Part II: The Effects of Detergents and Dispersants.
    Yin K, Kasrai M, Fuller M, Bancroft G M, Fyfe K, Colaianni M L, Tan K H,
    Wear 202, 1997, 192-201.
    Paper # 112 Chemical Characterization of Tribochemical and Thermal Films Generated from Neutral and Basic ZDDPs using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy
    Fuller M, Yin Z, Kasrai M, Bancroft G M, Yamaguchi E S, Ryason P R, Willermet P A, Tan K H,
    Tribology International, 30, 1997, 305-315.
    Paper # 114 Tribological Properties of Fire-Resistant, Non-flammable, and petroleum-Based Hydraulic Fluids
    Lacey P I, Naegeli D W, Wright B R,
    In Tribology of Hydraulic Pump Testing, ASTM STP 1310, Totten G. E., Kling G. and Smolenski D, J, eds., ASTM, 1996.
    Paper # 115 Bench Wear and Single-Cylinder Engine Evaluations of High Temperature Lubricants for U.S. Army Ground Vehicles
    Lacey P I, Frame E A, Yost D M,
    Belvoir Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility SwRI Report No. BFLRF 291, September 1994.
    Paper # 118 A Study of Boundary Lubrication Thin Films Produced from a Perfluoropolyalkylether Fluid on M-50 Surfaces. 1. Film Species Characterization and Mapping Studies
    Liang J C, Cavdar B, Sharma S K,
    Tribology Letters, 3, 1997, 107-112.
    Paper # 119 Wettability Aspects of Friction and Wear reduction by a Fluorinated Sulphonamide Additive in a Chlorotrifluoroethylene-based Fluid
    Cavdar B, Sharma S K, John P,
    Tribology International, 28(8), 1995, 501-506.
    Paper # 134 Testing Extreme Pressure and Anti-Wear Performance of Crankcase and Gearbox Lubricants
    Alliston-Greiner A F, Plint A G, Plint M A,
    Proceedings of the XII NCIT, January 1998, p. 672-686.
    Paper # 135 Wear Testing Methods and Their Relevance to Industrial Wear Problems
    Gee M G, Owen-Jones S,
    NPL (National Physical Laboratory) Report CMMT (A)92, December 1997.
    Paper # 143 A Model Study of Lubricant Additive Reactions in the Presence of Methanol
    Olsson B, Mattsson L, Nilsson P H, Otterholm B, Wirmark G,
    Proc. Leeds-Lyon Symposium, Vehicle Tribology, Dowson et al. (eds), 1991, Elsevier Tribology Series, 18, Paper XVI(ii), p. 429-437.
    Paper # 147 Solution Decomposition of Zinc Dialkyl Dithiphosphate and its Effect on Antiwear and Thermal Film Formation Studies by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy.
    Suominen Fuller M L, Kasrai M, Bancroft G M, Fyfe K, Tan K H,
    Tribology International, 31 (10), 1998, 627-644.
    Paper # 148 The Sliding Wear Resistance and Frictional Characteristics of Surface Modified Aluminium Alloys Under Extreme Pressure
    Dearnley P A, Gummersbach J, Weiss H, Ogwu A A, Davies T J,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 127-134.
    Paper # 152 A Qualitative Empirical Model of Cylinder Bore Wear
    Becker E P, Ludema K C,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 387-404.
    Paper # 154 Temperature Effects on the Wear Behaviour of Particulate Reinforced Al-Based Composites
    Martin A, Rodriguez J, Llorca J,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 615-620.
    Paper # 155 Tribological Behaviour of Plasma-Sprayed Chromium Oxide Coating
    Ahn H-S, Kwon O-K,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 814-824.
    Paper # 156 Scuffing and Wear Behaviour of Aluminium Piston Skirt Coatings Against Aluminium Cylinder Bore
    Wang Y, Tung S C,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 1100-1108.
    Paper # 157 Development and Use of ASTM Standards for Wear Testing
    Blau P J, Budinski K G,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 1159-1170.
    Paper # 159 Effects of Whisker Distribution and Sintering Temperature on Friction and Wear of Si3N4-Whisker-Reinforced Si3N4-Composites
    Liang Y N, Lee S W, Park D S,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 1327-1337.
    Paper # 160 Reciprocating Friction and Wear Behaviour of a Ceramic-Matrix Graphite Composite for Possible Use in Diesel Engine Valve Guides
    Blau P J, Dumont B, Braski D N, Jenkins T, Zanoria E S, Long M C,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 1338-1349.
    Paper # 197 Using Fiber Optics and Laser Fluorescence for Measuring Thin Oil Films With Application to Engines
    Dana E Richardson, Gary L Borman
    SAE Paper – 912388 – 10/01/1991
    Paper # 220 Use of Low-Viscosity, Low-Volatility Basestocks in Formulation of High Performance Motor Oils
    T E Kiovsky, N C Yates, J R Bales
    SAE Paper – 922348 – 10/01/1992
    Paper # 227 Stuck Servovalves in Aircraft Hydraulic Systems
    Sharma S K, Snyder CE, Gschwender L J, Liang J C, Schreiber B F,
    STLE Lubrication Engineering, 55(7), 1999, 27-32.
    Paper # 228 Influence of Potential on the Friction and Wear of Mild Steel in a Model Aqueous Lubricant
    Brandon N P, Bonanos N, Fogarty P O, Mahmood M N, Moore A J, Wood R J K,
    J. App. Eletrochem, 23, 1993, 456.
    Paper # 230 On the Use of Laboratory Friction Tests to Select Lubricants for Cold Rolling of Aluminium Alloys
    Deneuville P,
    STLE Lubrication Engineering, 55(8), 1999, 28-32.
    Paper # 232 The Combined Effects of ZDDP, Surface Texture and Hardness on the Running-in of Ferrous Metals
    Do H, Lin R C,
    Tribology International, 32(5), 1999, 243-253.
    Paper # 233 Bench Test Study of Piston Flank and Piston Groove Interaction
    Barrell D J W, Priest M, Taylor C M,
    Proc. Leeds-Lyon Symposium, Vehicle Tribology, Dowson et al. (eds), 1999, Elsevier Tribology Series, 36, p. 343-351.
    Paper # 234 Piston Ring / Ring Groove Interactions in Internal Combustion Engines
    Barrell D J W, Priest M, Taylor C M,
    presented at “Mission of Tribology Research 8”, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, 2nd December 1999, Paper 9.
    Paper # 248 Tribological properties of ionic liquids as lubricants and additives. Part 1: synergistic tribofilm formation between ionic liquids and tricresyl phosphate
    MF Fox, M Priest
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology Volume 222, Number 3 / 2008 p. 291-303
    Paper # 275 Tribological performance of an Al–Si alloy lubricated in the boundary regime with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate and molybdenum dithiocarbamate additives
    X Xia, A Morina, A Neville, M Priest
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology Volume 222, Number 3 / 2008 p. 305-314
    Paper # 276 Tribological properties of diamond-like carbon coatings in lubricated automotive applications
    H Renondeau, BL Papke, M
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology Volume 223, Number 3 / 2009 p. 405-412
    Paper # 277 Tribological evaluation of aluminum and magnesium sheet forming at high temperatures
    MD Hanna
    Wear Volume 267, Issues 5-8, 15 June 2009, p. 1046-1050
    Paper # 279 The Two-layer Structure of Zndtp Tribofilms
    Martin J-M, Grossiord C, Le Mogne T, Bec S,TonckA,
    Tribology International, 34 (2001) 523-530.
    Paper # 280 Additive Influence on Wear and Friction Performance of Environmentally Adapted Lubricants
    Waara P, Hannu J, Norrby T, Byheden A,
    Tribology International, 34 (2001) 547-556.
    Paper # 282 A Review of ZDDPs: Characterisation and Role in Lubricating Oil
    Barnes A, Bartle K, Thibon V,
    Tribology International, 34 (2001) 389-395.
    Paper # 283 The Influence of Honing on the Wear of Ceramic Coated Piston Rings and Cylinder Liners
    Radil K,
    Lubrication Engineering, Volume 58, Issue 7, July 2001.
    Paper # 284 Wear and Scuffing Characteristics of Composite Polymer and Nickel/ceramic Composite Coated Piston Skirts Against Aluminium and Cast Iron Cylinder Bores
    Wang Y, Brogan K, Tung S,
    Wear 250 (2001) 706-717.
    Paper # 285 Tribological Evaluation of Oil Pump Relief Valve Coatings Compatible with an Aluminum Oil Pump Body
    Wang Y, Brogan K, Tung S,
    Wear 250 (2001) 690-705.
    Paper # 294 Tribological Characteristics of WC-Ni and WC-Co Cemented Carbide in Dry Reciprocating Sliding Contact
    K Bonny, P De Baets, J Vleugels
    Tribology Transactions, Volume 52, Issue 4 July 2009 , p. 481 – 491
    Paper # 302 Tribological Characteristics of Electrolytic Coatings for Aluminum Engine Cylinder Lining Applications
    Amit Datta, John Carpenter, Peter J Blau, Ronald D Ott
    SAE Paper – 2002-01-0490 – 03/04/2002
    Paper # 311 Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Oil Films for Application to Piston Ring Lubrication
    Dana E Richardson, Gary L Borman
    SAE Paper – 922341 – 10/01/1992
    Paper # 315 Abrasion and Reciprocating Wear Testing of Ceramics and Hardmetals.
    Gee M G, Gant A, Byrne W P, Roebuck B,
    NPL Report CMMT(A)166, May 1999.
    Paper # 324 Testing Extreme Pressure and Anti-Wear Performance of Crankcase and Gearbox Lubricants.
    Alliston-Greiner A F, Plint A G, Plint M A,
    ASTM STP 1404, American Society for Testing and Materials.
    Paper # 327 Reciprocative sliding wear of ZrO2–TiCN composites against WC-Co cemented carbide
    K Bonny, P De Baets, J Vleugels, A Salehi, B Lauwers
    Wear Volume 265, Issues 11-12, 26 November 2008, p. 1767-1775
    Paper # 329 Squeak and Rattle Behavior of Elastomers and Plastics: Effect of Normal Load, Sliding Velocity, and Environment
    Martin A Trapp, Roman Pierzecki
    SAE Paper – 2003-01-1521
    Paper # 330 Squeak and Rattle Behavior of Filled Thermoplastics: Effect of Filler Type and Content on Acoustic Behavior
    Martin A Trapp, Roman Pierzecki
    SAE Paper – 2005-01-2542
    Paper # 331 Statistical Methods to Formulate Belt Drive Cvt Fluids With High Friction Coefficients
    William C Ward, Carlos L Cerda de Groote
    SAE Paper – 2000-01-1871 – 06/19/2000
    Paper # 333 The lubricity of graphite flake inclusions in sintered polyimides affected by chemical reactions at high temperatures
    P Samyn, G Schoukens
    Carbon Volume 46, Issue 7, June 2008, p. 1072-1084
    Paper # 334 The sliding behaviour of sintered and thermoplastic polyimides investigated by thermal and Raman spectroscopic measurements
    P Samyn, J Quintelier, G Schoukens, P De Baets
    Wear Volume 264, Issues 9-10, 10 April 2008, p. 869-876
    Paper # 335 Methods of Improving Cylinder Liner Wear
    Padma Kodali, Peter How, William D McNulty
    SAE Paper – 2000-01-0926 – 03/06/2000
    Paper # 338 Optimization of Anti-Scuff and Film Strength Characteristics of Marine Cylinder Lubricants
    S S V Ramakumar, Neelam Aggarwal, Ajay Kumar, V K Chhatwal, V Martin, B R Tyagi
    SAE Paper – 2004-28-0083 – 01/16/2004
    Paper # 339 Plastic Oil Rings for Diesel Engines: a Preliminary Evaluation
    Joao A Cullen, Richard F Dixon, Jiubo Ma
    SAE Paper – 960049 – 02/01/1996
    Paper # 340 Raman Characterization of Anti-Wear Films Formed from Fresh and Aged Engine Oils
    Dairene Uy, Steven J Simko, Ann E O’Neill, Ronald K Jensen, Arup K Gangopadhyay, Roscoe O Carter III
    SAE Paper – 2006-01-1099
    Paper # 350 Laboratory Test Rig Simulation of Bore Polish
    Gondal A K, Davis F A, Eyre T S,
    Materials Science and Technology January 1998 Vol 14
    Paper # 355 Basic Studies on Boundary, EP and Piston Ring Lubrication Using a Special Apparatus
    Mills T N, Cameron A,
    ASLE Trans., 25, 1981, 117.
    Paper # 356 Metallic Contact and Friction Between Sliding Surfaces
    Furey M J,
    ASLE Trans., 4, 1961.
    Paper # 367 A Study of Break-in Film Development with Different Piston Ring Coatings and Correlation with Electrical Contact Resistance Measurements
    Tung S C, Hong Gao,
    Lubrication Engineering, Volume 59, Issue 9, September 2003
    Paper # 368 The Tribological Behaviour of Engineering Plastics during Sliding Friction investigated with Small-scale Specimens
    Zsidai L, De Baets P, Samyn P, Kalacska G, Van Peteghem A P, Van Parys F,
    Wear 253 (2002) 673 – 688
    Paper # 369 Tribological Behaviour of Pure and Graphite-filled Ployamides under Atmospheric Conditions
    Samyn P, De Baets P, Schoukens G, Hendrickx B,
    Polymer Engineering and Science Page 1477 Vol 43 No 8 August 2003
    Paper # 383 An Experimental Study of the Wear Performance of NiCrBSi Thermal Spray Coatings
    Rodriguez J, Martin A, Fernandez R, Fernandez J E,
    Wear 255 (2003) 950 – 955
    Paper # 387 Friction Characteristics of a Potential Articular Cartilage Biomaterial
    Covert R J, Ott R D, Ku D N,
    Wear 255 (2003) 1064 – 1068
    Paper # 389 Tribological Characteristics and Surface Interaction between Piston Ring Coatings and a Blend of Energy-conserving Oils and Ethanol Fuels
    Tung S C, Gao H
    Wear 255 (2003) 1276 – 1285
    Paper # 397 Limited Slip Wet Clutch Transmission Fluid for AWD Differentials; Part 2: Fluid Development and Verification
    Ganemi B, Maki R, Ekholm K, Olsen R, Lundstrom B,
    JSAE 20030121 SAE 2003-01-1981
    Paper # 398 An Industrial View on Oil Specifications, Wear Testing and Hydraulic Fluids
    Olsson H, Ukonsaari J,
    Nortrib Conference 2002
    Paper # 399 A Laboratory Simulation for Stick-Slip Phenomena on the Hydraulic Cylinder of a Construction Machine
    Muraki M, Kinbara B, Konishi T,
    Tribology International – Accepted for publication 21 March 2003
    Paper # 401 Lubricant chemistry and tribology chemistry – boundary and extreme pressure lubrication
    Cameron A
    IMechE 1987
    Paper # 402 A rig test to measure friction and wear of heavy duty diesel engine piston rings and cylinder liners using realistic lubricants
    John J. Truhan J J, Jun Qu, Blau P J.
    Tribology International Volume 38, Issue 3 , March 2005, p. 211-218
    Paper # 403 A rolling-contact device that uses the ball-on-flat testing principle
    M Kalin, J Vizintin
    Wear 256 (2004) 335-341
    Paper # 404 Lubrication of an electroplated nickel matrix silicon carbide coated eutectic aluminium–silicon alloy automotive cylinder bore with an ionic liquid as a lubricant additive
    K Mistry, MF Fox, M Priest
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology Volume 223, Number 3 / 2009 p. 563-569
    Paper # 405 Advantages of using the ball-on-flat device in rolling-contact testing of ceramics
    M Kalin, J Vizintin
    Journal of European Ceramic Society 24 (2004) 11-15
    Paper # 407 Friction reduction by metal sulfides in boundary lubrication studied by XPS and XANES analyses
    M I De Barros, J Bouchet, I Raoult, Th Le Mogne, J M Martin, M Kasrai and Y Yamada
    Wear 254 (2003) 863-870
    Paper # 409 Wear studies of (Ti–Al)N coatings deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering
    K Singh, P K Limaye, N L Soni, A K Grover, R G Agrawal and A K Suri
    Wear 2005 Volume 258, No11-12, 1813-1824
    Paper # 410 X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis of the chemical environment of zinc in the tribological film formed by zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate decomposition on steel
    M D Pauli, T S Rufael, J K Mowlem, M Weinert, D K Saldin and W T Tysoe
    Tribology International Volume 38, Issue 2 , February 2005, p. 195-204
    Paper # 415 A multi-technique approach of tribofilm characterisation
    C Minfray, JM Martin, C Esnouf, T Le Mogne, R Kersting, B Hagenhoff
    Thin Solid Films Volumes 447-448, 30 January 2004, p. 272-277
    Paper # 416 A multi-technique characterization of ZDDP antiwear films formed on Al (Si) alloy (A383) under various conditions
    G Pereira, A Lachenwitzer, M Kasrai, PR Norton, TW Capehart, T Perry, Y-T Cheng, B. Frazer, P Gilbert
    Tribology Letters, Volume 26, No. 2, May 2007 – 103 – 117
    Paper # 418 A Review of Sub-Scale Test Methods to Evaluate the Friction and Wear of Ring and Liner Materials for Spark- and Compression Ignition Engines
    PJ Blau
    ORNL/TM-2001/184 – 22 January 2002
    Paper # 419 A review of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPS): characterisation and role in the lubricating oil
    AM Barnes, KD Bartle, VRA Thibon
    Tribology International, Volume 34, Number 6, June 2001, pp. 389-395
    Paper # 420 A scuffing test for piston ring/bore combinations Part I. Stearic acid lubrication
    J Galligan, AA Torrance, G Liraut
    Wear Volume 236, Number 1, December 1999 , pp. 199-209(11)
    Paper # 424 Adsorption and friction in the UHV tribometer
    JM Martin, T Le Mogne, C Grossiord, T Palermo
    Tribology Letters Volume 3, Number 1 / March, 1997 p. 87-94
    Paper # 425 Alternative and low sulfur fuel options: boundary lubrication performance and potential problems
    KS Wain, JM Perez, E Chapman, AL Boehman
    Tribology International Volume 38, Issue 3 , March 2005, p. 313-319
    Paper # 429 Annual Technical Progress Report for Project Entitled “Impact of DME-Diesel Fuel Blend Properties on Diesel Fuel Injection Systems”
    EM Chapman, A Boehman, K Wain, W Lloyd, JM Perez, D Stiver, J Conway
    Report: June 2003 DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-01NT41115
    Paper # 430 Antiwear film formation of neutral and basic ZDDP: influence of the reaction temperature and of the concentration
    K Varlot, M Kasrai, JM Martin, B Vacher, GM Bancroft, ES Yamaguchi, P Ray Ryason
    Tribology Letters 8 (2000) 9–16
    Paper # 434 Boundary lubrication mechanisms of carbon coatings by MoDTC and ZDDP additives
    MI de Barros’ Bouchet, JM Martin, T Le-Mogne, B Vacher
    Tribology International Volume 38, Issue 3, March 2005, p. 257-264
    Paper # 435 CFCC applications for diesel engine valve guides. DOE Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composite Program
    D Twait, M Long
    DOE Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composite Program Phase IIA/B Final Report April 14,1999
    Paper # 437 Characterization of Tribological Behaviour of Hardmetals
    K Bonny, P DE Baets, B Lauwers, J Vleugels, O Van Der Biest
    Delft University of Technology – Tribology Department 2001
    Paper # 438 Chemical and Mechanical Properties of ZDDP Antiwear Films on Steel and Thermal Spray Coatings Studied by XANES Spectroscopy and Nanoindentation Techniques
    MA Nicholls, T Do, PR Norton, GM Bancroft, M Kasrai, T. Weston Capehart, Y-T Cheng, T Perry
    Tribology Letters Volume 15, Number 3 / October, 2003 p. 241-248
    Paper # 439 Chemical characterization and nanomechanical properties of antiwear films fabricated from ZDDP on a near hypereutectic Al–Si alloy
    G Pereira, A Lachenwitzer, MA Nicholls, M Kasrai, PR Norton, G Stasio
    Tribology Letters, Volume 18, Number 4, April 2005, pp. 411-427
    Paper # 440 Chemistry of Antiwear Films from Ashless Thiophosphate Oil Additives
    MN Najman, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft
    Tribology Letters Volume 17 Number 2 – August 2004 – 217-229
    Paper # 441 Chemistry of ZDDP Tribofilm by ToF-SIMS
    C Minfray, JM Martin, MI De Barros, TL Mogne, R Kersting, B Hagenhoff
    Tribology Letters Volume 17, Number 3 / October, 2004 p. 351-357
    Paper # 442 Coated machine elements—fiction or reality?
    B Podgornik
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volumes 146-147, September-October 2001, p. 318-323
    Paper # 443 Combination of ashless antiwear additives with metallic detergents: interactions with neutral and overbased calcium sulfonates
    M Najman, M Kasrai, G Michael Bancroft, R Davidson
    Tribology International Volume 39, Issue 4, April 2006, p. 342-355
    Paper # 451 Effect of humidity on wear of M-50 steel with a branched perfluoropolyalkylether lubricant
    LS Helmick, SK Sharma
    Tribology Letters 6 (1999) 123–127
    Paper # 452 Effect of liner surface properties on wear and friction in a non-firing engine simulator
    DK Srivastava, AK Agarwal, J Kumar
    Materials & Design Volume 28, Issue 5, 2007, p. 1632-1640
    Paper # 455 Effects of Mo-Containing Dispersants on the Function of ZDDP: Chemistry and Tribology
    Z Zhang, ES Yamaguchi, L Yu, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft
    Tribology Transactions, 2007 – Taylor & Francis
    Paper # 456 Effects of temperature and sliding distance on the wear behavior of austenitic Fe-Cr-C-Si hardfacing alloy
    K Lee, KH Ko, JH Kim, GG Kim, S Kim
    Tribology Letters Volume 26, Number 2 / May, 2007 p. 131-135
    Paper # 458 Experimental simulation of chemical reactions between ZDDP tribofilms and steel surfaces during
    C Minfray, TL Mogne, AA Lubrecht, JM Martin
    Tribology Letters Volume 21, Number 1 / January, 2006 p. 65-76
    Paper # 459 Extraction and tribological investigation of top piston ring zone oil from a gasoline engine
    PM Lee, M Priest, MS Stark, JJ Wilkinson, JR Lindsay Smith, R Taylor, S Chung
    Proceedings of the I MECH E Part J Journal of Engineering Tribology, Volume 220, Number 3, 2006, pp. 171-180
    Paper # 460 Fracture and tribological behaviors of Al 2 O 3/5 vol.% SiC nanocomposites
    SH Kim, YH Kim, SW Lee, T Sekino, K Niihara
    Materials Science Forum, 2003
    Paper # 463 Friction of polyoxymethylene homopolymer in highly loaded applications extrapolated from small-scale
    P Samyn, P De Baets
    Tribology Letters, Volume 19, Number 3, July 2005, pp. 177-189
    Paper # 464 Friction, wear and material transfer of sintered polyimides sliding against various steel and diamond-like carbon coated surfaces
    P Samyn, G Schoukens, J Quintelier, P De Baets
    Tribology International Volume 39, Issue 6, June 2006, p. 575-589
    Paper # 465 Friction-reducing mechanisms of molybdenum dithiocarbamate/zinc dithiophosphate combination: New insights in MoS2 genesis
    C Grossiord, JM Martin, T Le Mogne, K Inoue
    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology May 1999 – Volume 17, Issue 3, 884-890
    Paper # 466 Fuel lubricity
    B Wilson
    Industrial Lubrication and Tribology Volume 48 · Number 1 · January/February 1996
    Paper # 470 Improved fuel efficiency by lubricant design: a review
    RI Taylor, RC Coy
    Proceedings of the I MECH E Part J Journal of Engineering Tribology, Volume 214, Number 1, 7 February 2000, pp. 1-15
    Paper # 471 Improvement of PEEM images from thick inhomogeneous antiwear films using a thin Pt coating
    MA Nicholls, GM Bancroft, M Kasrai, PR Norton, BH Stasio
    Tribology Letters, Volume 18, Number 4, April 2005, pp. 453-462
    Paper # 472 Influence of interfacial potential on the tribological behavior of brass/silicon dioxide rubbing
    Q Chang, Y Meng, S Wen
    Applied Surface Science, Volume 202, Number 1, 15 December 2002, pp. 120-125
    Paper # 475 Influence of Internal Lubricants (PTFE and Silicon Oil) in Short Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polyimide Composites on Performance Properties
    P Samyn, P De Baets, G Schoukens
    Tribology Letters Issue Volume 36, Number 2 / November 2009 p. 135-146
    Paper # 476 Influence of temperature and ZDDP concentration on tribochemistry of surface-capped molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles studied by XANES spectroscopy
    VN Bakunin, M Kasrai, GN Kuzmina, GM Bancroft, OP Parenago
    Tribology Letters Volume 26, Number 1 / April, 2007 p. 33-43
    Paper # 477 Interaction of ZDDP with Borated Dispersant Using XANES and XPS
    Z Zhang, ES Yamaguchi, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft, G Barber
    Tribology Transactions, Volume 47, Issue 4 January 2004 , p. 527 – 536
    Paper # 478 Investigation of the scuffing characteristics of candidate materials for heavy duty diesel fuel
    J Qu, JJ Truhan, PJ Blau
    Tribology International Volume 38, Issue 4 , April 2005, p. 381-390
    Paper # 479 Ionic liquids with ammonium cations as lubricants or additives
    J Qu, JJ Truhan, S Dai, H Luo, PJ Blau
    Tribology Letters, Vol. 22, No. 3, June 2006 p. 207 – 214
    Paper # 480 Key life test to predict automotive ball joint wear using the Cameron-Plint high frequency friction
    C HSU, G MCINTYRE
    NGLI’s. Annual Meeting No67, Asheville, North Carolina , USA, NLGI Spokesman 2001, vol. 64, no12, pp. 13-17
    Paper # 481 Load-Dependent Transition in Sliding Wear Properties of TiCN–WC–Ni Cermets
    BVM Kumar, I Kanpur, B Basu
    Journal of the American Ceramic Society Volume 90 Issue 5 May 2007 Page 1534–1540
    Paper # 482 Lubricant influence on flange wear in sharp railroad curves
    P Waara
    Industrial Lubrication and Tribology Volume 53 2001
    Paper # 483 Lubrication of carbon coatings with MoS 2 single sheet formed by MoDTC and ZDDP lubricants
    MI de Barros Bouchet, T Le Mogne, JM Martin
    Tribology International 2005 – 38: 257–264
    Paper # 485 Materials and surface treatments solutions for friction and wear problems in food industries
    YM Chen, D Duchateau, JP Peyre, JJ Tessier
    CETIM, Senlis, France
    Paper # 487 Mechanical characteristics of colored film on stainless steel by the current pulse method
    CJ Lin, JG Duh
    Thin Solid Films, 1996 – 287:1-21-2, 80-86 – Elsevier
    Paper # 494 Modeling of Abrasive Wear in a Piston Ring and Engine Cylinder Bore System
    S TUNG, Y HUANG
    Tribology Transactions 2004- 47: 17-22
    Paper # 496 Morphology and Nanomechanical Properties of ZDDP Antiwear Films as a Function of Tribological Contact Time
    M Aktary, MT McDermott, GA McAlpine
    Tribology Letters, Volume 12, Number 3, April 2002, pp. 155-162
    Paper # 497 MoS2 single sheet lubrication by molybdenum dithiocarbamate
    C Grossiord, K Varlot, JM Martin, T Le Mogne, C Esnoufb, K Inouec
    Tribology International Volume 31, Issue 12, December 1998, p. 737-743
    Paper # 498 Nanomechanical properties of films derived from zincdialkyldithiophosphate
    OL Warren, JF Graham, PR Norton, JE Houston, TA Michalske
    Tribology Letters Volume 4, Number 2 / March, 1998 p. 189-198
    Paper # 499 Nanometer Scale Chemomechanical Characterization of Antiwear Films
    MA Nicholls, PR Norton, GM Bancroft, M Kasrai, T Do, BH Frazer, G De Stasio
    Tribology Letters Volume 17, Number 2 / August, 2004 p. 205-216
    Paper # 500 New opportunities in automotive tribology
    MP Everson, H Ohtani
    Tribology Letters Volume 5, Number 1 / July, 1998
    Paper # 502 Overview of Techniques for Measuring Friction Using Bench Tests and Fired Engines
    DN Assanis, DJ Patterson, SC Tung, SI Tseregounis
    SAE Technical Papers Document Number: 2000-01-1780
    Paper # 503 Percolative mechanism of sliding wear in alumina/zirconia composites
    JF Bartolomé, C Pecharromán, JS Moya, A Martín
    Journal of the European Ceramic Society 26 (2006) 2619–2625
    Paper # 504 Piston Ring-Cylinder Bore Friction Modeling in Mixed Lubrication Regime: Part II—Correlation With Bench Test Data
    O Akalin, GM Newaz
    Journal of Tribology – January 2001 – Volume 123, Issue 1, 219-223
    Paper # 507 Scuffing resistance after tribosynthesis of a modified surface layer
    J Hershberger, OO Ajayi, YA Bello, GR Fenske
    Thin Solid Films Volumes 469-470, 22 December 2004, p. 263-267
    Paper # 509 Impacts of Bore Surface Finish and Coating Treatment on Tribological Characteristics of Engine Cylinder Bores
    Simon C Tung, John Emley
    SAE Paper – 2002-01-1638 – 05/06/2002
    Paper # 510 Simulated fuel dilution and friction-modifier effects on piston ring friction
    O Smith, M Priest, RI Taylor, R Price, A Cantlay, R Coy
    Proceedings of the I MECH E Part J Journal of Engineering Tribology, Volume 220, Number 3, 2006, pp. 181-189
    Paper # 512 Sliding friction and wear of magnesium alloy AZ91D produced by two different methods
    PJ Blau, M Walukas
    Tribology International Volume 33, Issue 8, August 2000, p. 573-579
    Paper # 516 Solution decomposition of zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate and its effect on antiwear and thermal film formation studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy
    MLS Fuller, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft, K Fyfe, KH Tan
    Tribology International Volume 31, Issue 10 , October 1998, p. 627-644
    Paper # 518 Spatial Distribution of the Chemical Species Generated Under Rubbing from ZDDP and Dispersed Potassium Triborate
    K Masenelli-Varlot, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft, G De Stasio, B Gilbert, ES Yamaguchi, PR Ryason
    Tribology Letters Volume 14, Number 3 / April, 2003 p. 157-166
    Paper # 519 Spectromicroscopy of tribological films from engine oil additives. Part I. Films from ZDDPs
    GW Canning, ML Suominen Fuller, GM Bancroft, MI Kasrai; JN Cutler, G De Stasio, B Gilbert
    Tribology Letters, Volume 6, Numbers 3-4, 1999 – 159-169
    Paper # 520 Structure and properties of the TiN and Ti (C, N) coatings deposited in the PVD process on high-speed steels
    LA Dobrzański, M Adamiak
    Journal of Materials Processing Technology Volume 133, Issues 1-2, 1 February 2003, p. 50-62
    Paper # 521 Study of interaction of EP and AW additives with dispersants using XANES
    Z Zhang, M Najman, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft, ES Yamaguchi
    Tribology Letters Volume 18, Number 1 / January, 2005 p. 43-51
    Paper # 522 Study of surface films of crystalline and amorphous overbased sulfonates and sulfurized olefins by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy
    MT Costello, RA Urrego, M Kasrai
    Tribology Letters Volume 26, Number 2 / May, 2007 p. 173-180
    Paper # 523 Study of surface films of overbased sulfonates and sulfurized olefins by X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy
    MT Costello, M Kasrai
    Tribology Letters Volume 24, Number 2 / November, 2006 p. 163-169
    Paper # 524 Study of the Chemistry of Films Generated from Phosphate Ester Additives on 52100 Steel Using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy
    MN Najman, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft, A Miller
    Tribology Letters Volume 13, Number 3 / October, 2002 p. 209-218
    Paper # 525 Study of the Interaction of ZDDP and Dispersants Using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy—Part 2: Tribochemical Reactions
    ES Yamaguchi, Z Zhang, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft
    Tribology Letters Volume 15, Number 4 / November, 2003 p. 385-394
    Paper # 526 Surface activity of high‐temperature perfluoropolyalkylether oil additives
    PJ John, J Liang, JN Cutler
    Tribology Letters 4 (1998) 277–285
    Paper # 527 Surface chemistry of new lubrication systems for high‐speed spacecraft bearings
    JN Cutler, JH Sanders, JS Zabinski, PJ John, JR McCutchen, LS Kasten, KH Tan
    Tribology Letters Volume 8, Number 1, 2000, pp. 17-23
    Paper # 529 Surface-capped molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles–a novel type of lubricant additives
    AY Suslov, VN Bakunin, GN Kuz’mina, LM Vedeneeva, O Parenago, C Migdal, P Stott
    Lubrication Science Volume 16, Issue 3 , p. 207 – 214
    Paper # 530 Surface-Capped Molybdenum Sulfide Nanoparticles–a Novel Type of Lubricant Additives
    VN Bakunin, AY Suslov, GN Kuz’mina, LM Vedeneeva,
    World Tribology Congress 2001
    Paper # 531 Temperature Effects on Mechanical Properties of Zinc Dithiophosphate Tribofilms
    K Demmou, S Bec, JL Loubet, JM Martin
    Tribology International 2006, Volume 39, No 12 p. 1558-1563
    Paper # 532 The chemistry of antiwear films generated by the combination of ZDDP and MoDTC examined by x-ray absorption spectroscopy
    M Kasrai, JN Cutler, K Gore, G Canning, GM Bancroft, KH Tan
    Tribology Transactions Volume 41, no. 1, pp. 69-77. Jan. 1998
    Paper # 533 Impact of Cr3C2/VC addition on the dry sliding friction and wear response of WC–Co cemented carbides
    K Bonny, P De Baets, J Vleugels, S Huang
    Wear Volume 267, Issues 9-10, 9 September 2009, p. 1642-1652
    Paper # 534 The Correlation of Microchemical Properties to Antiwear (AW) Performance in Ashless Thiophosphate Oil Additives
    MN Najman, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft, BH Frazer, G De Stasio
    Tribology Letters Volume 17, Number 4 / November, 2004 p. 811-822
    Paper # 535 The decomposition reaction path of a linear PFPAE under tribological conditions
    LS Helmick, JC Liang, BE Ream
    Tribology Letters 4 (1998) 287–292
    Paper # 537 The effect of residual stresses in functionally graded alumina–ZTA composites on their wear and friction behaviour
    S Novak, M Kalin, P Lukas, G Anne, J Vleugels, O Van Der Biest
    Journal of the European Ceramic Society Volume 27, Issue 1, 2007, p. 151-156
    Paper # 542 The role of the cation in antiwear films formed from ZDDP on 52100 steel
    G Pereira, A Lachenwitzer, D Munoz-Paniagua, M Kasrai, P Norton, M Abrecht, P Gilbert
    Tribology Letters Volume 23, Number 2 / August 2006 p. 109-119
    Paper # 543 The tribological properties of several silahydrocarbons for use in space mechanisms
    WR Jones Jr, MJ Jansen, LJ Gschwender, CE Snyder, SK Sharma, RE Predmore, MJ Dube
    Proceedings of the 9th European Space Mechanisms and Tribology Symposium, 19-21 September 2001, Liège, Belgium. ESA Publications Division, ISBN 92-9092-761-5, 2001, p. 57 – 63
    Paper # 544 The use of post-mortem Raman spectroscopy in explaining friction and wear behaviour of sintered polyimide at high temperature
    P Samyn, J Vancraenenbroeck, F Verpoort, P De Baets
    Tribotest Volume 12, Issue 3 , p. 223 – 236
    Paper # 545 The use of X‐ray absorption spectroscopy for monitoring the thickness of antiwear films from ZDDP
    ML Suominen Fuller, L Rodriguez Fernandez, GR Massoumi, WN Lennard, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft
    Tribology Letters Volume 8, Number 4 / May, 2000 p. 187-192
    Paper # 548 Thermal transitions in polyimide transfer under sliding against steel, investigated by raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis
    P Samyn, P De Baets, J Van Craenenbroeck, F Verpoort, G Schoukens
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2006, Volume 101, No 3, p. 1407-1425
    Paper # 551 Topography and nanomechanical properties of tribochemical films derived from zinc dialkyl and diaryl
    JF Graham, C McCague, PR Norton
    Tribology Letters 6 (1999) 149–157
    Paper # 552 Tribochemical interactions between molybdenum dithiophosphate and succinimide additives
    C Guerret-Piecourt, C Grossiord, T Le Mogne, JM Martin, T Palermo
    Surface and Interface Analysis Volume 30, Issue 1 , p. 646 – 650
    Paper # 553 Tribochemical Wear of Rail Steels Lubricated with Synthetic Ester-Based Model Lubricants
    P Waara, T Norrby, B Prakash
    Tribology Letters Issue Volume 17, Number 3 / October, 2004 p. 561 – 568
    Paper # 554 Tribochemistry of Overbased Calcium Detergents Studied by ToF-SIMS and Other Surface Analyses
    L Cizaire, JM Martin, E Gresser, NT Dinh, C Heau
    Tribology Letters Volume 17, Number 4 / November, 2004 p. 715-721
    Paper # 555 Tribochemistry of PFPAE fluid on M-50 surfaces by FTIR spectroscopy
    J LIANG, LS HELMICK
    Tribology Transactions 1996, 39:33, 705-709
    Paper # 556 Tribofilms generated from ZDDP and DDP on steel surfaces: Part 1, growth, wear and morphology
    Z Zhang, ES Yamaguchi, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft
    Tribology Letters Volume 19, Number 3 / July, 2005 p. 211-220
    Paper # 557 Tribological behavior and tribofilm composition in lubricated systems containing surface-capped molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles
    VN Bakunin, GN Kuzmina, M Kasrai, OP Parenago, C Migdal, P Stott
    Tribology Letters – Volume 22, Number 3 / June, 2006
    Paper # 561 Tribological behaviour of diamond-like carbon coatings applied on polymer extrusion dies
    P De Baets, P Deckers, F Van Parys, K Vercammen
    World Tribology Congress 2001
    Paper # 566 Tribological Properties of Hot Pressed Alumina-Silicon Carbide Nanocomposite
    SH Kim, YH Kim, T Sekino, K Niihara, SW Lee
    AzoJoMo DOI: 10.2240/azojomo0144 Posted: September 2005
    Paper # 568 Tribological studies of ZrO-implanted on stainless steel substrate
    H Dogan, F Findik, A Oztarhan
    Industrial Lubrication and Tribology Dec 2004 Volume: 56 Issue: 6 Page: 341 – 345
    Paper # 569 UHV friction of tribofilms derived from metal dithiophosphates – all 3 versions »
    C Grossiord, JM Martin, T Le Mogne, T Palermo
    Tribology Letters 6 (1999) 171–179
    Paper # 574 Wear mechanisms associated with the lubrication of zirconia ceramics in various aqueous solutions
    M Kalin, G Dražič, S Novak, J Vižintin
    Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 26, Issue 3, 2006, p. 223-232
    Paper # 577 Wear testing and specification of hydraulic fluid in industrial applications
    H Olsson, J Ukonsaari
    Tribology International Volume 36, Issue 11, November 2003, p. 835-841
    Paper # 578 Wear Testing of Seals in Magneto-Rheological Fluids
    V Iyengar, A Alexandridis, S Tung, D Rule
    Tribology Transactions, 2004 47:1 – 23-28 – Taylor & Francis
    Paper # 579 Wear transitions and stability of polyoxymethylene homopolymer in highly loaded applications compared to small-scale testing
    P Samyn, P De Baets, G Schoukens, J Quintelier
    Tribology International Volume 40, Issue 5, May 2007, p. 819-833
    Paper # 580 X-ray absorption spectroscopy of antiwear films on aluminum alloys generated from zinc
    M Fuller, M Kasrai, JS Sheasby, GM Bancroft
    Tribology Letters 1 (1995) 367-378
    Paper # 581 The development of a “pin on twin” scuffing test to evaluate materials for heavy-duty diesel fuel injectors
    JJ Truhan, J Qu, PJ Blau
    Tribology Transactions Volume 50 Number 1 January – March 2007
    Paper # 582 Friction characteristics between metal contacting surfaces from anti-wear additives with application to metal V-belt type continuosly variable transmission lubricants
    K Narita, M Priest
    Journal of Engineering Tribology May 2007 Volume 221 No J3 p. 195-207
    Paper # 583 Investigation of fundamental wear mechanisms at piston ring and cylinder wall interface in internal combustion engines
    P Papadopolous, M Priest, W M Rainforth
    Journal of Engineering Tribology May 2007 Volume 221 No J3 p. 333-343
    Paper # 621 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Morphology Study on Antiwear Films Derived from ZDDP Under Different Sliding Frequencies
    YR Li, G Pereira, A Lachenwitzer, M Kasrai, PR Norton
    Tribology Letters Volume 27, Number 3 / September, 2007
    Paper # 622 Effect of the microstructure of thermally sprayed coatings on friction and wear response under lubricated and dry sliding conditions
    L Prchlik, S Sampath,
    Wear Volume 262, Issues 1-2, 4 January 2007, p. 11-23
    Paper # 623 A variable temperature mechanical analysis of ZDDP-derived antiwear films formed on 52100 steel
    G Pereira, D Munoz-Paniagua, A Lachenwitzer, M Kasrai, P R Norton, T W Capehart, TA Perry, YT Cheng,
    Wear Volume 262, Issues 3-4, 4 February 2007, p. 461-470
    Paper # 624 Experimental analysis of tribological properties of lubricating oils with nanoparticle additives
    YY WU, WC TSUI, TC LIU,
    Wear Volume 262, Issues 7-8, 15 March 2007, p. 819-825
    Paper # 625 Fuel Efficient Lubricant Formulations for Passenger Cars Or Heavy Duty Trucks
    Henri Bourgognon, Bernard Lamy, Francois Benard, Frederic Espinoux
    SAE Paper – 2000-01-2055 – 06/19/2000
    Paper # 626 Highly effective friction modifiers from nano-sized materials
    DA Bokarev, VN Bakunin, GN Kuz’mina, OP Parenago,
    Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils Volume 43, Number 4 / July, 2007
    Paper # 627 Correlation between the tribological behaviour and wear particle morphology—case of grey cast iron 250 versus Graphite and PTFE
    C KOWANDY, C RICHARD, YM CHEN, JJ TESSIER,
    Wear Volume 262, Issues 7-8, 15 March 2007, p. 996-1006
    Paper # 628 Friction and Wear Mechanisms of Sintered and Thermoplastic Polyimides under Adhesive Sliding
    P Samyn, G Schoukens, F Verpoort, J Van Craenenbroeck, P De Baets,
    Macromolecular Materials and Engineering Volume 292, Issue 5 , p. 523 – 556
    Paper # 629 Load-Dependent Transition in Sliding Wear Properties of TiCNWCNi Cermets
    BV Manoj Kumar, B Basu, M Kalin, J Vizintin,
    Journal of the American Ceramic Society Volume 90, Number 5, May 2007 , pp. 1534-1540
    Paper # 636 The effect of lubricating oil condition on the friction and wear of piston ring and cylinder liner materials in a reciprocating bench test
    John J Truhan, Jun Qu, Peter J Blau
    Wear 259 (2005) 1048–1055
    Paper # 661 Tribological properties of ionic liquids as lubricants and additives. Part 1: synergistic tribofilm formation between ionic liquids and tricresyl phosphate
    Fox MT, Priest M
    Journal Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology Issue Volume 222, Number 3 / 2008 p. 291-303
    Paper # 662 Tribological characteristics of ashless dithiocarbamate derivatives and their combinations with ZDDP as additives in mineral oil
    Kaizhong Fan, Jing Li, Haibing Ma, Hua Wu, Tianhui Ren, M Kasrai and GM Bancroft
    Tribology International, Volume 41, Issue 12, December 2008, p. 1226-1231
    Paper # 663 Application of diamond-like carbon coatings to elastomers frictional surfaces
    L Martínez, R Nevshupa, L Álvarez, Y Huttel, J Méndez, E Román, E Mozas, JR Valdés, MA Jimenez, Y Gachon, C Heau and F Faverjon
    Tribology International Volume 42, Issue 4, April 2009, Pages 584-590
    Paper # 664 Parametric Optimization of Periodic Textured Surfaces for Friction Reduction in Combustion Engines
    Costin Caciu; Etienne Decencire; Dominique Jeulin
    Tribology Transactions, Volume 51, Issue 4 July 2008 , p. 533 – 541
    Paper # 665 Influence of electrical discharge machining on tribological behavior of ZrO2–TiN composites
    K Bonny, P De Baets, J Vleugels, A Salehi, O Van der Biest, B Lauwers and W Liu
    Wear Volume 265, Issues 11-12, 26 November 2008, p. 1884-1892
    Paper # 666 Friction and wear performance of diamond-like carbon and Cr-doped diamond-like carbon coatings in contact with steel surfaces
    H Renondeau, R I Taylor, G C Smith, A A Torrance
    Journal Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology Issue Volume 222, Number 3 / 2008 p. 231-240
    Paper # 667 Dry Reciprocating Sliding Friction and Wear Response of WC–Ni Cemented Carbides
    K Bonny , P De Baets, J Vleugels, S Huang and B Lauwers
    Tribology Letters Issue Volume 31, Number 3 / September, 2008
    Paper # 668 The lubricity of graphite flake inclusions in sintered polyimides affected by chemical reactions at high temperatures
    Pieter Samyn and Gustaaf Schoukens
    Carbon, Volume 46, Issue 7, June 2008, p. 1072-1084
    Paper # 669 The Effect of Steel Hardness on the Performance of ZDDP Antiwear Films: A Multi-Technique Approach
    Yue-Rong Li, Gavin Pereira, Masoud Kasrai and Peter R Norton
    Tribology Letters Issue Volume 29, Number 3 / March, 2008
    Paper # 670 The sliding behaviour of sintered and thermoplastic polyimides investigated by thermal and Raman spectroscopic measurements
    Pieter Samyn, Jan Quintelier, Gustaaf Schoukens and Patrick De Baets
    Wear Volume 264, Issues 9-10, 10 April 2008, p. 869-876
    Paper # 671 Sliding Wear of Electrically Conductive ZrO2−WC Composites Against WC–Co Cemented Carbide
    K Bonny , P De Baets, J Vleugels, A Salehi, O Van der Biest, B Lauwers and W Liu
    Tribology Letters Issue Volume 30, Number 3 / June, 2008 p. 191-198
    Paper # 672 Calculation and significance of the maximum polymer surface temperature T* in reciprocating cylinder-on-plate sliding
    Pieter Samyn, Gustaaf Schoukens
    Polymer Engineering and Science 2008 Volume 48 Issue 4, p. 774 – 785
    Paper # 673 Boundary lubrication film formation from phosphorus antiwear additives with application to metal V-belt type continuously variable transmission lubricants
    K Narita, M Priest
    Journal Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology Issue Volume 222, Number 3 / 2008 p. 343-356
    Paper # 674 Analysis of interface temperature, forward slip and lubricant influence on friction and wear in cold rolling
    K Louaisil, M Dubar, R Deltombe, A Dubois and L Dubar
    Wear Volume 266, Issues 1-2, 5 January 2009, p. 119-128
    Paper # 675 Reciprocative sliding wear of ZrO2–TiCN composites against WC-Co cemented carbide
    K Bonny, P De Baets, J Vleugels, A Salehi, B Lauwers and W Liu
    Wear Volume 265, Issues 11-12, 26 November 2008, p. 1767-1775
    Paper # 676 Influence of secondary electro-conductive phases on the electrical discharge machinability and frictional behavior of ZrO2-based ceramic composites
    K Bonny, P De Baets, J Vleugels, A Salehi, O Van der Biest, B Lauwers and W Liu
    Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 208, Issues 1-3, 21 November 2008, p. 423-430
    Paper # 677 Reciprocating sliding friction and wear behavior of electrical discharge machined zirconia-based composites against WC–Co cemented carbide
    K Bonny, P De Baets, J Vleugels, O Van der Biest, A Salehi, W Liu and B Lauwers
    International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials Volume 27, Issue 2, March 2009, Pages 449-457
    Paper # 678 Influence of electrical discharge machining on the reciprocating sliding friction and wear response of WC–Co cemented carbides
    K Bonny, P De Baets, W Ost, S Huang, J Vleugels, W Liu and B Lauwers
    International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials Volume 27, Issue 2, March 2009, Pages 350-359
    Paper # 679 Influence of electrical discharge machining on the reciprocating sliding wear response of WC-Co cemented carbides
    K Bonny, P De Baets, W Ost, J Vleugels, S Huang, B Lauwers and W Liu
    Wear Volume 266, Issues 1-2, 5 January 2009, p. 84-95
    Paper # 680 Tribochemistry in sliding wear of TiCN–Ni-based cermets
    BV Manoj Kumar, Bikramjit Basu, Joze Vizintin, Mitjan Kalin
    Journal of Materials Research May 2008
    Paper # 681 Tribological performance of an Al-Si alloy lubricated in the boundary regime with zinc dialkyldithiophosphate and molybdenum dithiocarbamate additives
    Xia, X; Morina, A; Neville, A; Priest, M; Roshan, R; Warrens, C P; Payne, M J
    Proceedings of the I MECH E Part J Journal of Engineering Tribology, Volume 222, Number 3, 2008 , pp. 305-314
    Paper # 687 Friction and Wear Properties Study of Nanoparticles as Additive in Lubrication Oil
    Ta-Chuan Liu, James H Wang, Jerry T W Shei, Yuh-Yih Wu
    SAE Paper – 2006-32-0016 – 11/13/2006
    Paper # 690 Tribological evaluation of aluminum and magnesium sheet forming at high temperature
    M D Hanna
    Wear 267 (2009) 1046–1050
    Paper # 694 Exploring PVD Coatings for Cylinder Liner Applications
    Padma Kodali, Nicole Stahley
    SAE Paper – 2001-01-0573 – 03/05/2001
    Paper # 701 Tribological characteristics of aluminum alloys sliding against steel lubricated by ammonium and imidazolium ionic liquids
    Jun Qu, Peter J Blau, Sheng Dai, Huimin Luo, Harry M Meyer III, John J Truhan
    Wear Volume 267, Issues 5-8, 15 June 2009, p. 1226-1231
    Paper # 702 Engine Oil Effects on Friction and Wear Using 2.2l Direct Injection Diesel Engine Components for Bench Testing: Part 2–Tribology Bench Test Results and Surface Analyses
    Simon C Tung, Michael L McMillan, Hong Gao, Ewa A Bardasz
    SAE Paper – 2004-01-2005 – 06/08/2004
    Paper # 703 Evaluating the role of spherical titanium oxide nanoparticles in reducing friction between two pieces of cast iron
    MJ Kao, CR Lin
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds Volume 483, Issues 1-2, 26 August 2009, p. 456-459
    Paper # 704 Wear Processes in Low Speed Diesel Engines
    Cees Schenk, Jan Hengeveld, Kjeld Aabo
    Shell Global Solutions – OKTOBER 2003 ~ SCHIP en WERF de ZEE
    Paper # 705 Test Method to Evaluate Cylinder Liner-Piston Ring Coatings for Advanced Heat Engines
    K C Radil
    NASA Technical Memorandum 107526 – ARL-MR-362 – May 1996
    Paper # 706 Basic Mechanisms of Diesel Lubrication Correlation of Bench and Engine Tests
    A Cameron, JA Greenwood, AF Alliston-Greiner
    US Army R&D Contract No. DAJ 45 86 C0007 – March 1991
    Paper # 709 Einige Gesetzmäßigkeiten über das tribologische Verhalten von ungefüllten und gefüllten TPU-Materialien (In German: Observations of the tribological behaviour of unfilled and filled TPU materials)
    István Gódor, Jürgen Schiffer, Florian Grün, Zoltán Major, Thomas Schwarz
    GfT Tribologie-Fachtagung – Gottingen 21-23 September 2009
    Paper # 719 Additive Interactions and Depletion Processes in Fuel Efficient Engine Oils
    Milton D Johnson, Dr Stefan Korcek
    SAE Paper – 971694 – 05/1997
    Paper # 720 An Investigation of Tribological Characteristics of Energy-Conserving Engine Oils Using a Reciprocating Bench Test
    Simon C Tung, Spyros I Tseregounis
    SAE Paper – 2000-01-1781 – 06/19/2000
    Paper # 721 Assessment of Correlation Between Bench Wear Test Results and Engine Cylinder Wear, Short-Trip Service
    Simon C Tung, Shirley E Schwartz, Kevin B Brogan, Chris J Mettrick
    SAE Paper – 2000-01-2947 – 10/16/2000
    Paper # 724 Effects of Aging on Frictional Properties of Fuel Efficient Engine Oils
    Milton D Johnson, Ronald K Jensen, Erin M Clausing, Kurt Schriewer, Stefan Korcek
    SAE Paper – 952532 – 10/01/1995
    Paper # 725 The potential of plasma electrolytic oxidized eutectic aluminium-silicon alloy as a cylinder wall surface for lightweight engine blocks
    K Mistry, M Priest, S Shrestha
    Proceedings of the I MECH E Part J Journal of Engineering Tribology, Volume 224, Number J2, 2010, pp. 221-229
    Paper # 727 Application of finite element simulations for data reduction of experimental friction tests on rubber–metal contacts
    J M Bielsa, M Canales, F J Martınez, M A Jimenez
    Tribology International 43 (2010) 785 –795
    Paper # 730 Chemical and mechanical analysis of tribofilms formed from fully formulated oils Part 2 Films on AlSi alloy (A383)
    G Pereira, A Lachenwitzer, YR Li, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft, PR Norton, M Abrecht, P Gilbert, T Regier, YF Hu, L Zuin
    Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 1, Number 2, June 2007, 105-112(8)
    Paper # 731 Improved mixed and boundary lubrication with glycerol-diamond technology
    M De Barros Bouchet, C Matta, T Le-Mogne, J Michel Martin, T Sagawa, S Okuda, S, M Kano
    Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2007, 28-32(5)
    Paper # 732 Chemical and mechanical analysis of tribofilms from fully formulated oils Part 1 Films on 52100 steel
    G Pereira, A Lachenwitzer, YR Li, M Kasrai, GM Bancroft, PR Norton, M Abrecht, P Gilbert, T Regier, YF Hu, L Zuin
    Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2007, 48-61(14)
    Paper # 734 Nanoscale chemistry and mechanical properties of tribofilms on AlSi alloy (A383): interaction of ZDDP, calcium detergent and molybdenum friction modifier
    G Pereira, A Lachenwitzer, D Munoz-Paniagua, M Kasrai, PR Norton, TW Capehart, TA Perry, YT Cheng
    Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2007, 4-17(14)
    Paper # 736 Consideration of Test Parameters in Reciprocating Tribometers Used to Replicate Ring-On-Liner Contact
    PM Lee, RJ Chittenden
    Tribology Letters (On-line) 31 March 2010
    Paper # 737 Piston ring tribology – A literature survey
    P Andersson, J Tamminen, C-E Sandström
    VTT Research Notes 2178 December 2002
    Paper # 739 Using the Energy Pulse Concept for Designing Better Wear Tests
    Alliston-Greiner A F
    IRG WOEM OECD Paper 21-1
    Paper # 741 Pin-on-Twin Reciprocating Scuffing Initiation Test
    P J Blau
    ORNL Tribology Research
    Paper # 752 Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils
    SJ Asadauskas, G Biresaw
    Tribology Letters 2010 Volume 37, Number 2, 111-121
    Paper # 753 Effects of Different Solid Lubricants on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Al2O3/ZrO2 Nanocomposites
    SH Kim, SH Cho, SP Hannula
    Materials Science Forum 2010 Volume 658 p. 404-407
    Paper # 756 Elucidating the microstructure and wear behavior of tungsten carbide multi-pass cladding on AISI 1050 steel
    YC Lin
    Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2010 Volume 210, Issue 2, p. 219-225
    Paper # 758 Evaluation of morphology and deposits on worn polyimide/graphite composite surfaces by contact-mode AFM
    P Samyn, G Schoukens
    Wear 2010 Volume 270, Issues 1-2, p. 57-72
    Paper # 763 Friction and wear characteristics of WC-Co cemented carbides in dry reciprocating sliding contact
    K Bonny, P De Baets, Y Perez, J Vleugels, B Lauwers
    Wear 2010 Volume 268, Issues 11-12, p. 1504-1517
    Paper # 765 Influence of electrical discharge machining on sliding friction and wear of WC-Ni cemented carbide
    K Bonny, P De Baets, J Van Wittenberghe
    Tribology International 2010 Volume 43, Issue 12, p. 2333-2344
    Paper # 766 Influence of Surface Finishing Operations on the Reciprocating Sliding Friction and Wear Response of WC Based Cemented Carbides
    K Bonny, P Baets, W Ost, S Huang, J Vleugels
    Advanced Tribology 2010 2010, Part 3, II, p. 435-436
    Paper # 768 Mapping microstructure inhomogeneity using electron backscatter diffraction in 316L stainless steel subjected to hot plane strain compression tests
    L Sun, MJ Thomas, BP Wynne
    Materials Science and Technology 2010 Volume 26, Number 12, p. 1477-1486
    Paper # 771 Micro to nanoscale surface morphology and friction response of tribological polyimide surfaces
    P Samyn, G Schoukens
    Applied Surface Science 2010 Volume 256, Issue 11, p. 3394-3408
    Paper # 774 Miscellaneous additives and vegetable oils
    J Crawford, A Psaila
    Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants 2010, Part 2, p. 189-211
    Paper # 782 Resolving the Chemical Variation of Phosphates in Thin ZDDP Tribofilms by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Synchrotron Radiation: Evidence for …
    JG Zhou, J Thompson, J Cutler, R Blyth, M Kasrai
    Tribology Letters 2010 Volume 39, Number 1, p. 101-107
    Paper # 783 Role of internal additives in the friction and wear of carbon-fiber-reinforced polyimide
    P Samyn, P De Baets
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2010 Volume 116, Issue 2, p. 1146–1156
    Paper # 786 Study of silane-based antiwear additives: Wear and chemistry
    LG Yu, ES Yamaguchi, M Kasrai
    Tribology International Volume 44, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages 692-701
    Paper # 787 Surface finishing: Impact on tribological characteristics of WC-Co hardmetals
    K Bonny, P De Baets, J Quintelier, J Vleugels
    Tribology International 2010 Volume 43, Issues 1-2, p. 40-54
    Paper # 795 Tribological behavior of wire-EDM’ed ZrO2-composites and cemented carbides
    P Delgado, K Bonny, O Malek
    Sustainable Construction and Design, Day of Research 2010, Volume 1, p. 68-72
    Paper # 796 Tribological behaviour of alternate hypereutectic AlSi alloys with different antiwear additives
    ANK Jadoon
    Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces 2010, Volume 4, Number 2, p. 61-73
    Paper # 797 Tribological behaviour of die tool materials used for die compaction in powder metallurgy
    W Li, PJ Blau, J Qu, SJ Park
    Powder Metallurgy 2010, Volume 53, Number 3, p. 251-259
    Paper # 805 Unravelling the chemical mysteries of ZDDP tribofilms using variable photon-energy X-ray photon spectroscopy
    JG Zhou, J Thompson, J Cutler, R Blyth
    Canada Light Source Inc 2010 Research Report
    Paper # 815 Correlated wear measurements using gold implantation, backscattering, nuclear activation analysis and profilometry
    D Shakhvorostov, A Lachenwitzer, L Coatsworth
    Tribology International Volume 44, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages 737-750
    Paper # 828 Tribometer Investigation of the Frictional Response of Piston Rings when Lubricated with the Separated Phases of Lubricant Contaminated with the Gasoline Engine Biofuel Ethanol and Water
    PR De Silva, M Priest, PM Lee, RC Coy
    Tribology Letters Volume 43, Number 2, 107-120
    Paper # 829 A Study on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Hot Pressed Al2O3/ZrO2/h-BN/TiO2 Composites
    HH Lee, SH Kim, B Joshi
    Materials Science Forum (Volume 695) Eco-Materials Processing and Design XII Pages 417-420
    Paper # 830 Calcium sulphonate and its interactions with ZDDP on both aluminium-silicon and model silicon surfaces
    M Burkinshaw, A Neville, A Morina
    Tribology International Volume 46, Issue 1, February 2012, Pages 41-51
    Paper # 831 Challenges of simulating fired engine ring-liner oil additive/surface interactions in ring-liner bench tribometer
    A Morina, PM Lee, M Priest
    Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 5, Number 1, March 2011 , pp. 25-33
    Paper # 832 Characterization of various coatings in terms of friction and wear for internal combustion engine piston rings
    A Guermat, G Monteil
    Mechanika Volume 17, No 6 (2011)
    Paper # 833 Dry sliding friction and wear response of WC-Co hardmetal pairs in linearly reciprocating and rotating contact
    Y Perez Delgado, K Bonny, P De Baets
    University of Ghent, Sustainable Construction and Design 2011, Pages 12 to 18
    Paper # 835 Effect of base oil lubrication in comparison with non-lubricated sliding in diamond-like carbon contacts
    I Velkavrh
    Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 5, Number 2, June 2011 , pp. 53-58
    Paper # 837 Effects of Fabricated Method on the Coefficient of Friction of Al2O3-15 wt% ZrO2-3 wt% Solid Lubricant Composites
    SH Kim, ME Cura, O Söderberg
    Materials Science Forum (Volume 695) Eco-Materials Processing and Design XII Pages 231-234
    Paper # 840 Experimental Analysis of Nanomechanics of Spherical Titanium Oxide Nanooils in Reducing Friction
    MJ Kao
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Volume 11, Number 8, August 2011 , pp. 7281-7284
    Paper # 841 Fabrication of TiO2 Nano-Oils by a Plasma Arc Nanoparticles Synthesis System
    MJ Kao, CC Yu
    Materials and Manufacturing Processes Volume 26, Issue 11, 2011
    Paper # 842 Impact of wire-EDM on dry sliding friction and wear of WC-based and ZrO2-based composites
    Y Perez Delgado, K Bonny, P De Baets, PD Neis
    Wear Volume 271, Issues 9-10, 29 July 2011, Pages 1951-1961
    Paper # 845 Investigation of the interactions between a novel, organic anti-wear additive, ZDDP and overbased calcium sulphonate
    A Greenall, A Neville, A Morina
    Tribology International Volume 46, Issue 1, February 2012, Pages 52-61
    Paper # 849 Role of friction modifiers on the tribological performance of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy lubricated in boundary conditions
    A Morina, X Xia, A Neville, M Priest
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology June 2011 vol. 225 no. 6 Pages 369-378
    Paper # 850 Study of Lubricity Characteristics of Non-Edible Vegetable based Bio-lubricant and Low SAP Engine Lubricants
    D Singh, AK Singh, N Singh
    Indian Institute of Petroleum 12-Sep-2011
    Paper # 851 Surface engineering to improve the durability and lubricity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy
    DG Bansal, OL Eryilmaz
    Wear Volume 271, Issues 9-10, 29 July 2011, Pages 2006-2015
    Paper # 853 Tribometer investigation of the frictional response of piston rings with lubricant contaminated with the gasoline engine biofuel ethanol and water
    PR De Silva, M Priest, PM Lee
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology June 2011 vol. 225 no. 6 Pages 347-358
    Paper # 854 Using TiODN2/DN nanofluid additive for engine lubrication oil
    YY Wu
    Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Volume 63, Number 6, 2011 , pp. 440-445
    Paper # 858 Applicability of ring-on-disc and pin-on-plate test methods for Cu–steel and Al–steel systems for large area conformal contacts
    F Grün, I Gódor, R Bertram
    Lubrication Science – Available online: 21 May 2012
    Paper # 859 Comparison of the effects of the lubricant-molecule chain length and the viscosity on the friction and wear of diamond-like-carbon coatings and steel
    I Velkavrh, M Kalin
    Tribology International Volume 50, June 2012, Pages 57–65
    Paper # 860 Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Behaviour of an Electron Beam Melted Hypereutectic Al–Si Alloy
    JC Walker, J Murray, S Narania, AT Clare
    Tribology Letters January 2012, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 49-58
    Paper # 862 Effects of the sliding conditions on the tribological behavior of atmospheric plasma sprayed Al2O3–15 wt.% ZrO2–CaF2 composite coating
    SH Kim, SP Hannula, SW Lee
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 210, 15 October 2012, Pages 127–134
    Paper # 866 HVOF Coating of µ-WC-Metal Powder and Laser Heat-Treatment of the Coating for the Improvement of Turbo Shaft Material
    TY Cho, YK Joo, JH Yoon, HG Chun
    Advanced Materials Research (Volume 586) Pages 74-79
    Paper # 868 Improving the performance of a proportional 4/3 water-hydraulic valve by using a diamond-like-carbon coating
    F Majdič, I Velkavrh, M Kalin
    Wear – Available online 7 December 2012
    Paper # 869 Improving the Properties of Magnetic Bearing Shaft Material by HVOF Coating of WC-Metal Powder and Laser Heat Treatment
    TY Cho, YK Joo, JH Yoon, HG Chun
    Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 560 – 561) Pages 1052-1058
    Paper # 871 Lubrication of aluminium‐silicon surfaces with ZDDP and detergents
    M Burkinshaw, A Neville, A Morina
    Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 6, Number 2, June 2012 , pp. 53-58(6)
    Paper # 874 Non-conventional inverse-Stribeck-curve behaviour and other characteristics of DLC coatings in all lubrication regimes
    M Kalin, I Velkavrh
    Wear Volume 297, Issues 1–2, 15 January 2013, Pages 911–918
    Paper # 875 Oil-miscible and non-corrosive phosphonium-based ionic liquids as candidate lubricant additives
    B Yu, DG Bansal, J Qu, X Sun, H Luo, S Dai, PJ Blau
    Wear Volume 289, 15 June 2012, Pages 58–64
    Paper # 877 Performance, Characterization and Design of Textured Surfaces
    B Podgornik, M Sedlacek
    Journal of Tribology October 2012 Volume 134, Issue 4
    Paper # 879 Self-Lubricating Cold-Sprayed Coatings Utilizing Microscale Nickel-Encapsulated Hexagonal Boron Nitride
    LM Stark, I Smid, AE Segall, TJ Eden
    Tribology Transactions Volume 55, Issue 5, 2012
    Paper # 882 The influence of start–stop transient velocity on the friction and wear behaviour of a hyper-eutectic Al–Si automotive alloy
    JC Walker, TJ Kamps, RJK Wood
    Wear – Available online 16 November 2012
    Paper # 884 Tribological behavior of (Cu42Zr42Al8Ag8)99.5Si0.5 bulk metallic glass
    YC Lin, JN Chen
    Wear Volumes 280–281, 20 March 2012, Pages 5–14
    Paper # 892 Simultaneous Film Thickness and Friction Measurement for a Piston Ring-Cylinder Contact
    E Y Avan, R S Mills, R S Dwyer-Joyce
    Proceedings of the STLE/ASME 2010 International Joint Tribology Conference IJTC2010, October 17-20, 2010, San Francisco, California, USA
    Paper # 897 Study of innovative surface modifications for Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy: assessment of wear and corrosion behaviour
    C Richard, G Manivasagam and J Landoulsi
    World Tribology Congress 2013 Torino, Italy, September 8 – 13, 2013
    Paper # 899 A Non-invasive Approach for Piston Ring Film Thickness Measurement
    E Y Avan, R S Mills and R S Dwyer-Joyce
    World Tribology Congress 2013 Torino, Italy, September 8 – 13, 2013
    Paper # 901 The Tribological Characteristics of ZDDP, Detergent and an Organic Antiwear Additive when Lubricating Ferrous and Aluminium-Silicon Surfaces
    M Burkinshaw, A Neville, A Morina, A Greenall and M Sutton
    World Tribology Congress 2013 Torino, Italy, September 8 – 13, 2013
    Paper # 904 Lubricant Friction Modifier Performance Retention – Tribological Studies
    F J DeBlase and F A Corbo
    World Tribology Congress 2013 Torino, Italy, September 8 – 13, 2013
    Paper # 906 Analysis of temperature effect on the wear mechanism of TPU-steel contact pair based on long-stroke tribotesting
    F. Javier Martínez, M Canales, N Alcalá and M A Jiménez
    World Tribology Congress 2013 Torino, Italy, September 8 – 13, 2013
    Paper # 932 Tribological properties of composites of polyamide‐6 and nanotubes of MoS2, and nanowires of MoO (3− x) and Mo6S2I8
    JG Meier, A Mrzel, M Canales, Pilar Gonzalvo, Noelia Alcala
    Physica Status Solidi Volume 210, Issue 11, pages 2307–2313, November 2013
    Paper # 933 Characterization of Tribofilms Generated from Serpentine and Commercial Oil Using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy
    F Zhao, M Kasrai, TK Sham, Z Bai
    Tribology Letters May 2013, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 287-297
    Paper # 934 Interpreting the effects of interfacial chemistry on the tribology of diamond-like carbon coatings against steel in distilled water
    DC Sutton, G Limbert, B Burdett, RJK Wood
    Wear Volume 302, Issues 1–2, April–May 2013, Pages 918–928
    Paper # 935 Comparison of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid and ZDDP as a Lubricant Anti-Wear Additive
    J Qu, H Luo, M Chi, C Ma, PJ Blau, S Dai, MB Viola
    Tribology International Volume 71, March 2014, Pages 88–97
    Paper # 936 The Effects of Biodiesel and Petro-Diesel on The Tribological Performance of Engine Components
    JC Tsai
    National Taiwan University of Science and Technology PhD 2013
    Paper # 937 Tribological performance of engine oil blended with various diesel fuels
    YC Lin, TH Kan, JN Chen, JC Tsai, YY Ku, KW Lin
    Tribology Transactions Volume 56, Issue 6, 2013
    Paper # 938 Interfacial Stress and Failure Analysis for Piston Ring Coatings under Dry Running Condition
    Y Guo, X Lu, W Li, T He
    Tribology Transactions Volume 56, Issue 6, 2013
    Paper # 939 Experimental and numerical investigations of oil film formation and friction in a piston ring–liner contact
    EY Avan, A Spencer, RS Dwyer-Joyce, A Almqvist, R Larsson
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology February 2013 vol. 227 no. 2 126-140
    Paper # 940 Synthesis and characterisation of rapeseed oil bio-lubricant–its effect on wear and frictional behaviour of piston ring–cylinder liner combination
    S Arumugam, G Sriram
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology January 2013 vol. 227 no. 1 3-15
    Paper # 941 An experimental and numerical investigation of frictional losses and film thickness for four cylinder liner variants for a heavy duty diesel engine
    EY Avan, A Spencer, RS Dwyer-Joyce, A Almqvist, R Larsson
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology December 2013 vol. 227 no. 12 1319-1333
    Paper # 942 The lubrication of both aluminium–silicon and model silicon surfaces with calcium sulphonate and an organic antiwear additive
    M Burkinshaw, A Neville, A Morina, M Sutton
    Tribology International Volume 67, November 2013, Pages 211–216
    Paper # 943 Physical, chemical, and lubricant properties of Brassicaceae oil
    K Ratanapariyanuch, J Clancy, S Emami, J Cutler, M Reaney
    European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology Volume 115, Issue 9, pages 1005–1012, September 2013
    Paper # 944 Effect of shaft roughness and pressure on friction of polymer bearings in water
    A Golchin,TD Nguyen, P De Baets, S Glavatskih, B Prakash
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology October 11, 2013
    Paper # 945 Comparison of three laboratory tests to quantify mild wear rate
    J Zhang, E Yamaguchi, H Spikes
    Tribology Transactions Volume 56, Issue 6, 2013
    Paper # 946 Effects of deep cryogenic treatment on the dry sliding wear performance of ferrous alloys
    R Thornton, T Slatter, H Ghadbeigi
    Wear Volume 305, Issues 1–2, 30 July 2013, Pages 177–191
    Paper # 947 The Influence of Honed Surfaces on Metal-on-Metal Hip Joints
    D Choudhury, R Walker, A Shirvani, R Mootanah
    Japanese Tribology Society – Tribology Online, Vol. 8, No. 3, (2013) / 202
    Paper # 948 Performance of honed surface profiles to artificial hip joints: An experimental investigation
    D Choudhury, R Walker, T Roy, S Paul, R Mootanah
    International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing Vol. 14, No. 10, pp. 1847-1853 October 2013
    Paper # 949 Effects of combined diffusion treatments and cold working on the sliding friction and wear behavior of Ti–6Al–4V
    DG Bansal, M Kirkham, PJ Blau
    Wear Volume 302, Issues 1–2, April–May 2013, Pages 837–844
    Paper # 950 Laser coating of aluminum alloy EN AW 6082-T651 with TiB2 and TiC: Microstructure and mechanical properties
    D Ravnikar, NB Dahotre, J Grum
    Applied Surface Science Volume 282, 1 October 2013, Pages 914–922
    Paper # 968 Advanced Power-Cylinder Tribology Using A Dynamically Loaded Piston Ring on Cylinder Bore Tribometer
    OM Smith, A Michlberger, D Jayne, A Sammut
    SAE, 2014, papers.sae.org
    Paper # 970 Characterization of gasoline soot and comparison to diesel soot: Morphology, chemistry, and wear
    D Uy, MA Ford, DT Jayne, LP Haack, J Hangas
    Tribology International, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 971 Characterization of tribofilms derived from zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate and serpentine by X-ray absorption spectroscopy
    F Zhao, M Kasrai, TK Sham, Z Bai, D Zhao
    Tribology International, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 972 Comparison of the tribological behavior of steel–steel and Si< sub> 3 N< sub> 4–steel contacts in lubricants with ZDDP or ionic liquid
    Z Cai, HM Meyer, C Ma, M Chi, H Luo, J Qu
    Wear, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 978 Effects of Ethanol Contamination on Friction and Elastohydrodynamic Film Thickness of Engine Oils
    HL Costa, H Spikes
    Tribology Transactions, 2014, Taylor & Francis
    Paper # 980 Expanding the Development of More Durable Friction Modifiers with Sustained Friction-Reduction: Extended Tribological Studies and Oil-Aging
    F DeBlase, F Corbo, C Migdal
    SAE, 2014, papers.sae.org
    Paper # 982 Friction and Wear Mechanisms of 316L Stainless Steel in Dry Sliding Contact: Effect of Abrasive Particle Size
    A Jourani, S Bouvier
    Tribology Transactions, 2014, Taylor & Francis
    Paper # 983 Friction and wear properties of hot pressed (Ti, Cr) B2+ MoSi2composite in sliding against WC ball
    TSR Murthy, PK Limaye, JK Sonber, K Sairam
    International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 984 Friction reduction mechanisms in boundary lubricated W-doped DLC coatings
    L Yang, A Neville, A Brown, P Ransom, A Morina
    Tribology International, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 986 Impact of Boundary Lubrication Performance of Engine Oils on Friction at Piston Ring-Cylinder Liner Interface
    K Tamura, M Kasai, Y Nakamura, T Enomoto
    SAE, 2014, papers.sae.org
    Paper # 987 Influence of Hot Molding Parameters on Tribological and Wear Properties of a Friction Material
    H Nesrine, AL Cristol, D Najjar, R Elleuch
    Tribology Transactions, 2014, Taylor & Francis
    Paper # 989 Interactions of Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings with Fully Formulated Engine Oils
    A Gangopadhyay, RJ Zdrodowski
    Tribology Transactions, 2014, Taylor & Francis
    Paper # 996 Microstructure and wear properties of silicide based coatings over Mo–30W alloy
    B Paul, PK Limaye, RC Hubli, AK Suri
    International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 998 Optimization of Reciprocating Friction and Wear Test Rig Operating Parameters for Segmented Piston Ring: Liner Assembly
    BM Sutaria, DV Bhatt
    Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Tribology and Engineering Systems, 2014, Springer
    Paper # 1000 Steel coating application for engine block bores by Plasma Transferred Wire Arc spraying process
    G Darut, H Liao, C Coddet, JM Bordes
    Surface and Coatings Technology, Elsevier
    Paper # 1006 ZDDP and its interactions with an organic antiwear additive on both aluminium–silicon and model silicon surfaces
    M Burkinshaw, A Neville, A Morina, M Sutton
    Tribology International, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 1011 An experimental and numerical investigation of frictional losses and film thickness for four cylinder liner variants for a heavy duty diesel engine
    Andrew Spencer, Emin Yusuf Avan, Andreas Almqvist, Rob S Dwyer-Joyce and Roland Larsson
    Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, December 2013; vol. 227, 12: pp. 1319-1333
    Paper # 1016 Effect of lubricant additives in rolling contact fatigue
    M Meheux, C Minfray, F Ville, T L Mogne, A A Lubrecht, J M Martin, H P Lieurade and G Thoquenne
    Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, September 1, 2010; vol. 224, 9: pp. 947-955
    Paper # 1017 Effect of oil temperature on tribological behavior of a lubricated steel− steel contact
    Z Cai, Y Zhou, J Qu
    Wear 2015
    Paper # 1022 Experimental simulation of impact and sliding wear in the top piston ring groove of a gasoline engine
    D. J. W. Barrell, M Priest and C. M. Taylor
    Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, March 1, 2004; vol. 218, 3: pp. 173-183
    Paper # 1024 Friction and Wear Mechanisms of 316L Stainless Steel in Dry Sliding Contact: Effect of Abrasive Particle Size
    A Jourani, S Bouvier
    Tribology Transactions 2015
    Paper # 1025 FTIR micro‐reflectance absorption spectroscopic analysis of chemisorbed reaction films for tribological applications
    RB Choudhary, OS Tyagi, ON Anand
    Lubrication Science 2015
    Paper # 1031 Mechanical and tribological properties of crystalline aluminum nitride coatings deposited on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering
    RK Choudhary, SC Mishra, P Mishra, PK Limaye
    Journal of Nuclear Materials 2015
    Paper # 1036 Reproducing automotive engine scuffing using a lubricated reciprocating contact
    TJ Kamps, JC Walker, RJ Wood, PM Lee, AG Plint
    Wear 2015
    Paper # 1038 Role of thermal, mechanical and oxidising treatment on structure and chemistry of carbon black and its impact on wear and friction
    M Patel, PB Aswath
    Tribology 2015
    Paper # 1039 Squeeze film lubrication in piston rings and reciprocating contacts
    RI Taylor
    Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, August 2015; vol. 229, 8: pp. 977-988
    Paper # 1041 The monitoring of coating health by in situ luminescent layers
    Y He, SC Wang, FC Walsh, WS Li, L He, PAS Reed
    RSC Advances 2015 – pubs.rsc.org
    Paper # 1044 Tribological properties of ionic liquids as lubricants and additives. Part 1: Synergistic tribofilm formation between ionic liquids and tricresyl phosphate
    M F Fox and M Priest
    Proc IMechE Part J: Engineering Tribology, March 1, 2008; vol. 222, 3: pp. 291-303
    Paper # 1049 Wear Processes in Low Speed Diesel Engines – The Role of Temperature and Pressure in Wear Processes in Low Speed Diesel Engines
    Werktuigbouw door Cees Schenk, Jan Hengeveld en Kjeld Aabo
    Royal Belgian Institute of Marine Engineers
    Paper # 1050 Oil‐Soluble Polymer Brush‐Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction
    RAE Wright, K Wang, J Qu
    Angewandte Chemie; 06-Jun-16
    Paper # 1053 Characteristics and microstructure of newly designed Al–Zn-based alloys for the die-casting process
    SS Shin, KM Lim, IM Park
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds; Volume 671, 25 June 2016, Pages 517-526
    Paper # 1054 Reciprocating sliding of polyester textile fabric composites along different fabric orientations
    Pieter Samyn
    Journal of Composite Materials, First Published 28 Jul 2016
    Paper # 1062 Hardness characterisation of grey cast iron and its tribological performance in a contact lubricated with soybean oil
    Adli Bahari, Roger Lewis, Tom Slatter
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, First Published 5 Nov 2016
    Paper # 1063 Electrostatic monitoring of wind turbine gearbox on oil-lubricated system
    Ruochen Liu, Hongfu Zuo, Jianzhong Sun, Ling Wang
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, First Published 9 Aug 2016
    Paper # 1067 Self-lubricating Ni-P-MoS 2 composite coatings
    Y He, SC Wang, FC Walsh, YL Chiu
    Surface and Coatings Technology; Volume 307, Part A, 15 December 2016, Pages 926-934
    Paper # 1069 Methodology of a statistical and DOE approach to the prediction of performance in tribology–A DLC boundary-lubrication case study
    K Simonovic, M Kalin
    Tribology International; Volume 101, September 2016, Pages 10-24
    Paper # 1075 Tribological properties and thermomechanical analysis of unsaturated polyester fabric composite in oscillating line-contact sliding
    P Samyn
    Tribology International; Volume 99, July 2016, Pages 127-139
    Paper # 1076 Friction behavior of a multi-interface system and improved performance by AlMgB 14–TiB 2–C and diamond-like-carbon coatings
    J Qu, PJ Blau, C Higdon, BA Cook
    Tribology International; Volume 99, July 2016, Pages 182-186
    Paper # 1078 Synthesis and Application of Polymer Brush-Grafted Nanoparticles as Hydrogel Gelators and Lubricant Additives
    RAE Wright
    University of Tennessee; Theses and Dissertations 2016
    Paper # 1079 Lubricating Composition Based on Aminated Compounds
    R Iovine, C Pizard
    US Patent Application 2016; US20160002559
    Paper # 1080 Lubricant Composition Based On Metal Nanoparticles
    A Bouffet
    US Patent Application 2016; US20160075965
    Paper # 1081 Fatty sorbitan ester based friction modifiers
    FJ DeBlase, CA Migdal, G Mulqueen
    US Patent Application 2016; US9296969 B2
    Paper # 1082 High modulus wear resistant gray cast iron for piston ring applications
    HO Gekonde
    US Patent Application 2016; US9316313 B2
    Paper # 1089 Correlating mechanical properties and anti-wear performance of tribofilms formed by ionic liquids, ZDDP and their combinations
    AK Landauer, WC Barnhill, J Qu
    Wear; Volumes 354-355, 15 May 2016, Pages 78-82
    Paper # 1090 Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of nano-SiC reinforced Ni-P coatings
    Q Wang, M Callisti, J Greer, B McKay, TK Milickovic
    Wear; Volumes 356-357, 15 June 2016, Pages 86-93
    Paper # 1091 Friction and wear mechanisms in boundary lubricated oxy-nitrided treated samples
    T Khan, Y Tamura, H Yamamoto, A Morina, A Neville
    Wear; Volumes 368-369, 15 December 2016, Pages 101-115

     



  • User List for the TE 77 High Frequency Friction Machine

    Launched 1983

    Comalco Research Australia
    University of Leoben Austria
    Du Pont de Nemours Belgium
    Falex Tribology NV Belgium
    Falex Tribology NV Belgium
    University of Ghent Belgium
    Vanderstaeten E bvba Belgium
    Esso Petroleum Canada
    National Research Council Canada
    University of Saskatchewan Canada
    University of Western Ontario Canada
    Petrochina, Dalian China
    Wuhan Metals China
    Technical Research Centre Finland
    Wartsila Oy Finland
    Aluminium Pechiney France
    Arcelor France
    Centre Technique des Industries de la Fonderie France
    CETIM France
    Electricite de France (EDF) France
    ELF France
    ENSAM, Lille France
    Esso Research France
    FUCHS France
    Institute of Petroleum France
    IRSID France
    Perfect  Circle Europe France
    Peugeot S.A France
    PSA France
    Renault France
    Total Centre de Recherche France
    UFR Mecanique Microtechnique, Besançon France
    UTC Compiegne France
    Akzo Research Germany
    BP Castrol GmbH Germany
    Burmah Oil Deutschland Germany
    DLR Germany
    Federal Mogul Germany
    Federal Mogul AE Goetze GmbH, Burscheid Germany
    Corus Holland
    Quaker Chemical Holland
    Grimas Hungary
    Balmer Lawrie India
    Castrol India Ltd India
    Chemzol Additives India
    Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun India
    Indian Oil Corporation India
    Indian Oil Corporation India
    Kala Naft University Iran
    Cosmo Oil Japan
    Honda R&D Japan
    Idemitsu Japan
    Idemitsu Japan
    Kawamura Research Laboratories Inc Japan
    Komatsu Japan
    Mitsubishi Oil Co Japan
    Nippon Mitsubishi Japan
    Sanyo for Tohoku University Japan
    Sanyo Trading for Mitsui Chemical Japan
    Shell Research Japan
    Showa Shell Sekiyu Japan
    Showa Shell Sekiyu Japan
    Tonen Japan
    Toyota Japan
    Toyota Japan
    Daewoo Heavy Industries Ltd Korea
    Hangyang University Korea
    Hanmi for Doosan Infracore Korea
    Hyundai Motor Company Korea
    Hyundai Motors Korea
    Hyundai Motors Korea
    IAE Korea
    KATECH Korea
    KIPEQ Korea
    Korean Institute of Science and Technology Korea
    Pohang Iron & Steel Co Ltd (POSCO) Korea
    Quaker Chemical/BIT Korea
    Seoul Polytechnic University Korea
    Sun Moon University Korea
    Taegu Machinery Institute Korea
    Akzo Research and Engineering Netherlands
    Akzo Research and Engineering Netherlands
    Kuwait Petroleum Netherlands
    Quaker Chemical Netherlands
    Shell Laboratory Netherlands
    I.N.E.T.I. Portugal
    Qatar University Qatar
    Idemitsu Singapore
    Centre of Tribology & Technical Diagnostics (Univerza V Ljubljani) Slovenia
    Institute of Technology, Aragon Spain
    INTA Spain
    ITMA Spain
    Technical Research Centre Spain
    Lulea University of Technology Sweden
    Nynas Petroleum Sweden
    Saab Sweden
    Lonza Graphite Switzerland
    Chinese Petroleum Corporation Taiwan
    ITRI MIRL Taiwan
    National University Taiwan
    NTIT Taiwan
    Albermarle UK Ltd UK
    Anglia Polytechnic University UK
    Armourcote UK
    Birmingham University UK
    BP Castrol UK UK
    British Petroleum UK
    British Petroleum UK
    British Petroleum UK
    British Petroleum UK
    British Petroleum UK
    Burmah Castrol UK
    Burmah Castrol UK
    Croda Application Chemicals Ltd UK
    De Montfort University UK
    Delphi Diesel Systems UK
    Delphi Diesel Systems UK
    Federal Mogul UK
    Federal Mogul UK
    Federal Mogul Corporation UK
    Federal Mogul Corporation UK
    G.K.N. Sheepbridgestokes UK
    Innospec Ltd UK
    Leeds University UK
    Liverpool John Moores University UK
    Lubricants UK (Castrol) UK
    Lubricants UK (Castrol) UK
    Lubricants UK (Castrol) UK
    Lubricants UK (Castrol) UK
    Lubrizol Great Britain Ltd UK
    Lubrizol Great Britain Ltd UK
    Lubrizol Great Britain Ltd UK
    Lubrizol Great Britain Ltd UK
    Lucas Advanced Engineering Centre UK
    Morgan Materials Technology UK
    National Centre of Tribology UK
    National Physical Laboratory UK
    Rocol Ltd UK
    Royal Aircraft Establishment, DQA/TS UK
    Royal Aircraft Establishment, DQA/TS UK
    Shell Research UK
    Shell Research UK
    Shell Research UK
    Shell Research UK
    Shell Research UK
    Shell Research UK
    Southampton University UK
    Akzo Chemicals USA
    Caterpillar Inc USA
    Caterpillar Inc USA
    Caterpillar Inc USA
    Chevron Oronite USA
    Chevron Oronite USA
    Combustion Technology USA
    Cummins Engine Company USA
    Cummins Engine Company USA
    Dow Corning USA
    Equilon Enterprises LLC USA
    Ethyl Petroleum Additives USA
    Ethyl Petroleum Additives USA
    Exxon Chemicals USA
    Exxon Research and Engineering USA
    Exxon Research and Engineering USA
    Federal Mogul Sintered Products USA
    Ford Motor Company USA
    General Motors USA
    General Motors USA
    General Motors USA
    General Motors USA
    George Washington University USA
    Honda R&D USA
    Idemitsu USA
    LE Jones USA
    Lubrizol USA
    Lubrizol USA
    Lubrizol Corporation USA
    Lubrizol Corporation USA
    Lubrizol Corporation USA
    Lubrizol Corporation USA
    Mobil USA
    Mobil USA
    N.A.S.A Lewis USA
    Northwest University, Evanston USA
    Norton Corporation USA
    Oakridge National Research Laboratories USA
    Saint Gobain USA
    South West Research Institute USA
    SWRI USA
    SWRI USA
    SWRI USA
    Timken USA
    Toyota USA
    Uniroyal Chemical Company USA
    UT Battelle, Oak Ridge USA
    Wright Patterson AFB USA
    Wright Patterson AFB USA
    ZYNP USA


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