The TE 79 Multi-Axis Tribometer is for friction and wear testing of materials under low loads in pin or ball on disc or reciprocating plate configurations. In pin on disc mode the machine can perform tests according to ASTM G 99 and DIN 50 324 and provides a Class 1 contact configuration (pin or ball loaded vertically downwards onto a horizontally rotating disc). In both pin on disc and pin on plate modes, the indexing capability allows tests to be performed in accordance ASTM G132 Standard Test Method for Pin Abrasion Testing, which requires indexation of the pin so that it is always presented with a fresh abrasive surface. The Tribometer is modular, with two possible configurations, each used in conjunction with the TE 79 Base Unit.
TE 79 Base Unit
This comprises the loading and friction force measurement system mounted on a base plate, control hardware with PLINT SLIM 2000 serial interface unit and control software. The machine is bench-top mounted and includes a transparent enclosure and ambient humidity and temperature sensor. The enclosure is also used as a safety cover for the machine and incorporates a magnetic proximity switch. The machine will not run if the enclosure is removed.
The fixed pin or ball sample is carried on a trunnion and gimble mounted loading beam. This is counterbalanced both to give a neutral balance and to bring the centre of gravity onto the contact plane. Load is applied by dead weights in a range from 0.1 N to 50 N.
The loading beam is restrained by a strain gauge force transducer in a sliding link. This link ensures that only the tangential component of force in the contact (the friction force) is measured even with the large deflections associated with elastomeric test pieces. As the lower specimen surface moves the friction force on the ball or pin sample is measured.
The load beam lift/lower is servo controlled so that the load can be applied at a specific point in the test. The program can also introduce a dwell between load application and movement. This dwell period is an important parameter in determining the start-up friction in elastomeric contacts.
TE 79/P Indexing Pin on Disc Module
The disc specimen is mounted in a reservoir to retain lubricating fluid. The reservoir is mounted on a vertical drive shaft assembly. This is mounted on a traversing slide, which permits the radius to be changed during a test. The control software may be set to run with a constant rpm or constant velocity during a traverse.
TE 79/R Indexing Reciprocating Module
The fixture for the lower (moving) specimen includes an electrical resistance heater and two thermocouples for temperature measurement and control above ambient conditions.
A programmable motion controller is used to coordinate movement of the two axes. Numerous motions are possible including:
Simple reciprocating along one track in the X direction.
Reciprocating in the X direction with indexing in the Y direction at stroke end, so that the wear track resembles a square wave.
Reciprocating in the X direction with indexing in opposite Y directions at stroke end, so that the wear track is rectangular.
Simultaneous indexing on both the X and Y axes so that the pin follows a circular or elliptical track with an orbiting (rotating friction vector) motion.
The TE 79 Base Unit is provided with a plastic safety cover, which also acts as a chamber for the user to run under controlled humidity conditions. An ambient temperature and humidity sensor is mounted on the machine base inside the chamber.
TE 75/R/C Cooler Pad and Laboratory Chiller
This test assembly replaces the standard fixed specimen heater block in the reciprocating module with a cooler pad. Used in conjunction with a Laboratory Chiller unit with water/glycol mixture as the coolant, temperatures from -25°C to ambient may be achieved. To avoid ice formation, this adapter is best used in conjunction with a simple desiccant dehumidifier system used in conjunction with a controlled air supply.
Control and Data Acquisition
The TE 79 has PC based sequence programmable control and data acquisition. This is provided by an integrated Serial Link Interface Module and COMPEND 2000 software running on a host PC, operating under Windows. Data is stored to hard disc in standard spread sheet compatible file formats (.csv or .tsv).
Tests are defined by a sequence of steps, each step containing set-point, data recording rates and alarm level information. Set-points may be adjusted by step change or ramp. The test sequence is followed unless interrupted by the operator or an alarm. Set-points may also be adjusted manually using on screen toggles.
Contact Configurations: Ball on Flat Pin on Flat Customised Specimens Normal Load: 0.1 to 50 N Friction Force Range: 0 to 50 N Humidity Sensor: 10 to 90% RH Interface: Serial Link Interface Module Software COMPEND 2000 TE 79/P Indexing Pin on Disc Module Contact Configurations: Ball on Disc Pin on Disc Disc Diameter: 100 mm Track Radius: 0 to 40 mm Y Traverse Speed: 10 mm/min Rotation Speed: 0 to 250 rpm Sliding Speed: up to 1 m/s TE 79/R Indexing Reciprocating Module Contact Configurations: Ball on Plate Plate on Plate Plate on Hemisphere Maximum X Axis Speed: 10 mm/s Maximum X Stroke: 50 mm Maximum Y Axis Speed: 10 mm/s Maximum Y Stroke: 30 mm Temperature Range: ambient to 100°C Dwell (time delay): User selected in seconds up to 8 hours Temperature Sensor: J-type thermocouple Heating Power: 150 W TE 79/R/C Peltier Cooler Minimum Temperature: -15°C (ambient water cooled) Minimum Temperature: -30°C (chiller water/glycol cooled) RE 79/R/C Laboratory Chiller Working Fluid: 50:50 Water/Glycol Fluid Temperature: -35°C Controlled Parameters X Position (TE 79/R) RPM (TE 79/P) X Axis Speed (TE 79/R) Y Position (TE 79/P and TE 79/R) Y Axis Speed (TE 79/P and TE 79/R) Temperature (TE 79/R) Dwell Period Test Duration Measured Parameters X Position (TE 79/R) Y Position (TE 79/P and TE 79/R) Humidity Ambient Temperature Temperature (TE 79/R) Friction Friction Coefficient Services Electricity: 220/240 V, single phase, 50 Hz, 720 W 110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 720 W Installation Bench-mounting machine: 570 mm x 600 mm x 600 mm high, 40 kg Bench-mounting controller: 530 mm x 530 mm x 240 mm high, 20 kg Packing Specifications: 0.59 m3, GW 120 kg, NW 70 kg
Paper # 107 Characterization of Molybdenum Nitride Coatings Produced by Arc-PVD Technique Urgen M, Eryylmaz O L, Cakyr A F, Kayaly E S, Nilufer B, Ipyk Y, Presented at ICMCTF97, published in Surface & Coatings Technology, 94/95, 1997. Paper # 151 The Effect of Load and Relative Humidity on Friction Coefficient Between High Density Polyethylene on Galvanized Steel – Preliminary Results Da Silva C H, Tanaka D K, Sinatora A, Wear 225-229 (1999), 339-342. Paper # 373 The Effects of Abrasive Particle Size on the Sliding Friction Coefficient of Steel using a Spiral Pin-on-disk Apparatus Pintaude G, Tanaka D K, Sinatora A, Wear 255 (2003) 55 – 59 Paper # 444 Comparison of flame sprayed Al2O3/TiO2 coatings: Their microstructure, mechanical properties and tribology behavior KA Habib, JJ Saura, C Ferrer, MS Damra, E Giménez Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 201, Issues 3-4, 5 October 2006, p. 1436-1443 Paper # 508 Selected characteristics of an Ormocer and a conventional hybrid resin composite DA Tagtekin, FC Yanikoglu, FO Bozkurt, B Kologlu, Sur H Dental Materials June 2004 p. 487-497 Paper # 513 Sliding wear behaviour of ZrN and (Zr, 12wt% Hf) N coatings E Atar, ES Kayali, H Cimenoglu Tribology International Volume 39, Issue 4 , April 2006, p. 297-302. … Paper # 528 Surface modification of titanium by plasma nitriding MP Kapczinski, C Gil, EJ Kinast, CA Santos Materials Research Volume 6 No 2 São Carlos April/June 2003 Paper # 567 Tribological properties of perfluoralkylethyl methacrylate-polymethyl methacrylate copolymer thin films Y Tongkhundam, A Sirivat, W Brostow Polymer Volume 45, Issue 26, December 2004, p. 8731-8738 Paper # 699 Load effect in abrasive wear mechanism of cast iron with graphite and cementite JJ Coronado, A Sinatora Wear of Materials 2009 Paper # 700 Mild and severe wear of steels and cast irons in sliding abrasion G Pintaude, FG Bernardes, MM Santos, A Sinatora, E Albertin Wear of Materials 2009 Paper # 749 Effect of (Fe, Cr) 7C3 carbide orientation on abrasion wear resistance and fracture toughness JJ Coronado Wear 2010 available online 10 November 2010 Paper # 761 Film formation mechanism in glass lubrication by polymer latex dispersions M Beauvais, B Piezel, F Hamidi, M Villalobos Thin Solid Films 2010 Volume 518, Issue 6, p. 1689-1697 Paper # 769 Mechanical behavior of stiff coating on glass under sliding contact X Geng, Z Zhang, E Barthel Wear 2010 Volume 269, Issues 5-6, p. 351-361 Paper # 836 Effect of load and carbide orientation on abrasive wear resistance of white cast iron JJ Coronado Wear Volume 270, Issues 11-12, 5 May 2011, Pages 823-827 Paper # 843 Improved adhesion and tribological properties of fast-deposited hard graphite-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon films T Zaharia, P Kudlacek, M Creatore Diamond and Related Materials Volume 20, Issue 9, October 2011, Pages 1266-1272 Paper # 846 Mécanismes d’endommagement d’empilements optiques de faible adhésion sous contact glissant D Davy, G Xuan 19ÈME CONGRES FRANÇAIS DE MECANIQUE [CFM2009] Paper # 951 Sliding Wear and Friction Behavior of CrN-coating in Ethanol and Oil-Ethanol Mixture AL Bandeira, R Trentin, C Aguzzoli, MEH Maia da Costa, AF Michels, IJR Baumvol, MCM Farias Wear Volume 301, Issues 1–2, April–May 2013, Pages 786–794 Paper # 974 Dry sliding wear behavior of SS316L composites containing h-BN and MoS< sub> 2 solid lubricants S Mahathanabodee, T Palathai, S Raadnui, R Tongsri Wear, 2014, Elsevier Paper # 1029 Influence of Al2O3 Nano-dispersions on Mechanical and Wear Resistance Properties of Semisolid Cast A356 Al Alloy AY Shash, AE Amer, M El-Saeed Mechanical and Materials Engineering 2015 Paper # 1033 Nanokompozit Mo-N-Cu kaplamaların yüksek sıcaklık aşınma davranışı U Küley 2015 polen.itu.edu.tr Paper # 1034 Nanoreinforced Cast Al-Si Alloys with Al2O3, TiO2 and ZrO2 Nanoparticles IS El-Mahallawi, AY Shash, AE Amer Metals 2015 mdpi.com Paper # 1035 Nanoreinforced Cast Al-Si Alloys with Al2O3, TiO2 and ZrO2 Nanoparticles IS El-Mahallawi, AY Shash, AE Amer Metals 2015 mdpi.com Paper # 1043 Tribological properties of introducing carbon nanoparticles produced by arc discharge in different paraffin oil grades V Nanotribology, HMM El-Sherif, MOA Mokhtar online.stle.org Paper # 1055 Comparison of Wear Resistance of Hawley and Vacuum Formed Retainers: An in-vitro Study Vahid Moshkelgosha, M Shomali, M Momeni Journal of Dental Biomaterials; Vol 3, No 2 (2016) Paper # 1056 The effect of process parameters on the mechanical properties of A356 Al-alloy/ZrO2 nanocomposite AY Shash, AE Amer, IS El-Mahallawi Journal of Nano Research Vol. 38; Paper # 1087 Effect of normal load on abrasive wear resistance and wear micromechanisms in FeMnAlC alloy and other austenitic steels OA Zambrano, Y Aguilar, J Valdés, SA Rodríguez Wear; Volumes 348-349, 15 February 2016, Pages 61-68 Paper # 1111 Effect of manganese, silicon and chromium additions on microstructure and wear characteristics of grey cast iron for sugar industries applications EET ELSawy, MR EL-Hebeary, ISE El Mahallawi Wear – Volumes 390–391, 15 November 2017, Pages 113-124 Paper # 1137 Novel wear-resistant anti-bacterial stainless steel surfaces L Tian, X Li, H Dong Surface Engineering – Published online: 19 April 2017
NV Bekaert SA Belgium Escola Politecnica Universidade Sao Paulo Brazil UFRGS/FINEP Instituto de Fiscia, Porte Alegre Brazil Cairo University (Tribology Laboratory) Egypt IUT de St Etienne France Saint Gobain Recherche France The Associated Cement Co Ltd India Jaume I University of Castello, Nr. Valencia Spain Chulalongkorn University (Metallurgy & Materials Science Research Institute) Thailand ITU, Istanbul Turkey Procter & Gamble (Health & Beauty Care) Ltd UK Birmingham University UK
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