The TE 79 Multi-Axis Tribometer is for friction and wear testing of materials under low loads in pin or ball on disc or reciprocating plate configurations. In pin on disc mode the machine can perform tests according to ASTM G 99 and DIN 50 324 and provides a Class 1 contact configuration (pin or ball loaded vertically downwards onto a horizontally rotating disc). In both pin on disc and pin on plate modes, the indexing capability allows tests to be performed in accordance ASTM G132 Standard Test Method for Pin Abrasion Testing, which requires indexation of the pin so that it is always presented with a fresh abrasive surface. The Tribometer is modular, with two possible configurations, each used in conjunction with the TE 79 Base Unit.

    TE 79 Base Unit

    This comprises the loading and friction force measurement system mounted on a base plate, control hardware, USB interface unit and control software. The machine is bench-top mounted and includes a transparent enclosure and ambient humidity and temperature sensor. The enclosure is also used as a safety cover for the machine and incorporates a magnetic proximity switch. The machine will not run if the enclosure is removed.
    The fixed pin or ball sample is carried on a trunnion and gimble mounted loading beam. This is counterbalanced both to give a neutral balance and to bring the centre of gravity onto the contact plane. Load is applied by dead weights in a range from 0.1 N to 50 N.
    The loading beam is restrained by a strain gauge force transducer in a sliding link. This link ensures that only the tangential component of force in the contact (the friction force) is measured even with the large deflections associated with elastomeric test pieces. As the lower specimen surface moves the friction force on the ball or pin sample is measured.
    The load beam lift/lower is servo controlled so that the load can be applied at a specific point in the test. The program can also introduce a dwell between load application and movement. This dwell period is an important parameter in determining the start-up friction in elastomeric contacts.

    TE 79/P Indexing Pin on Disc Module

    This Module comprises a rotating disc assembly mounted on a cross slide, thus allowing the pin sample to follow a spiral track on the disc, if required. Rotary and translatory motions are driven by stepper motors. The module locates on the base plate of the TE 79 Base Unit and is fixed in place with locating screws.
    The disc specimen is mounted in a reservoir to retain lubricating fluid. The reservoir is mounted on a vertical drive shaft assembly. This is mounted on a traversing slide, which permits the radius to be changed during a test. The control software may be set to run with a constant rpm or constant velocity during a traverse.

    TE 79/R Indexing Reciprocating Module

    The Module locates on the base plate of the TE 79 Base Unit and is fixed in place with locating screws. It provides X/Y axis movement with linear positional feedback. Tangential (friction) force measurement is in the X direction. The axes are formed by cross-axis linear slides with 1 mm pitch lead screws and are driven by stepper motors.
    The fixture for the lower (moving) specimen includes an electrical resistance heater and two thermocouples for temperature measurement and control above ambient conditions.
    A programmable motion controller is used to coordinate movement of the two axes. Numerous motions are possible including:
    Simple reciprocating along one track in the X direction.
    Reciprocating in the X direction with indexing in the Y direction at stroke end, so that the wear track resembles a square wave.
    Reciprocating in the X direction with indexing in opposite Y directions at stroke end, so that the wear track is rectangular.
    Simultaneous indexing on both the X and Y axes so that the pin follows a circular or elliptical track with an orbiting (rotating friction vector) motion.

    Test Environment

    The TE 79 Base Unit is provided with a plastic safety cover, which also acts as a chamber for the user to run under controlled humidity conditions. An ambient temperature and humidity sensor is mounted on the machine base inside the chamber.

    TE 79/R/C Cooler Pad  and Laboratory Chiller

    This test assembly replaces the standard fixed specimen heater block in the reciprocating module with a cooler pad. Used in conjunction with a Laboratory Chiller unit with water/glycol mixture as the coolant, temperatures from -25°C to ambient may be achieved. To avoid ice formation, this adapter is best used in conjunction with a simple desiccant dehumidifier system used in conjunction with a controlled air supply.

    TE 79/R/S Stick-slip Adapter

    The stick-slip adapter is used in conjunction with TE 79/R Indexing Reciprocating Module. A plate specimen is supported on a linear bearing, with axial movement constrained either by elastomeric stops or adjustable springs. By adjusting the axial stiffness of the system, the stick-slip response can be tuned. For evaluating a slide-way lubricant, the system is first adjusted to give a stick-slip response, either with a base oil or a poor reference fluid, then tested with the candidate sample, to determine its ability to suppress stick-slip.

    Control and Data Acquisition

    Control and data acquisition are implemented via host PC running COMPEND 2020 Windows compatible software, in conjunction with a Phoenix Tribology USB micro-controller interface.
    Automatic control is implemented via user programmable test sequences. Manual control is implemented using on screen toggles. Data is stored to hard disc in either .csv or .tsv file formats.


  • Technical Specifications

    Contact Configurations: Ball on Flat
    Pin on Flat
    Customised Specimens
    Normal Load: 0.1 to 50 N
    Friction Force Range: 0 to 50 N
    Humidity Sensor: 10 to 90% RH
    Interface: Phoenix Tribology USB micro-controller interface
    Software COMPEND 2020
    TE 79/P Indexing Pin on Disc Module
    Contact Configurations: Ball on Disc
    Pin on Disc
    Disc Diameter: 100 mm
    Track Radius: 0 to 40 mm
    Y Traverse Speed: 10 mm/min
    Rotation Speed: 0 to 250 rpm
    Sliding Speed: up to 1 m/s
    TE 79/R Indexing Reciprocating Module
    Contact Configurations: Ball on Plate
    Plate on Plate
    Plate on Hemisphere
    Maximum X Axis Speed: 10 mm/s
    Maximum X Stroke: 50 mm
    Maximum Y Axis Speed: 10 mm/s
    Maximum Y Stroke: 30 mm
    Temperature Range: ambient to 100°C
    Dwell (time delay): User selected in seconds up to 8 hours
    Temperature Sensor: J-type thermocouple
    Heating Power: 150 W
    TE 79/R/C Peltier Cooler
    Minimum Temperature: -15°C (ambient water cooled)
    Minimum Temperature: -30°C (chiller water/glycol cooled)
    RE 79/R/C Laboratory Chiller
    Working Fluid: 50:50 Water/Glycol
    Fluid Temperature: -35°C
    Controlled Parameters X Position (TE 79/R)
    RPM (TE 79/P)
    X Axis Speed (TE 79/R)
    Y Position (TE 79/P and TE 79/R)
    Y Axis Speed (TE 79/P and TE 79/R)
    Temperature (TE 79/R)
    Dwell Period
    Test Duration
    Measured Parameters X Position (TE 79/R)
    Y Position (TE 79/P and TE 79/R)
    Ambient Temperature
    Temperature (TE 79/R)
    Friction Coefficient
    Electricity: 220/240 V, single phase, 50 Hz, 720 W
    110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 720 W
    Bench-mounting machine: 570 mm x 600 mm x 600 mm high, 40 kg
    Bench-mounting controller: 530 mm x 530 mm x 240 mm high, 20 kg
    Packing Specifications: 0.59 m3, GW 120 kg, NW 70 kg

  • Applications

    abrasion resistance
    abrasive wear
    ball on disc
    ball on plate
    corrosion and wear
    delamination wear
    electro-chemical cell
    humid conditions
    pin on disc
    pin on plate
    two body abrasion
    wear mapping

  • Overview Videos


    Motion Overview


    Stick Slip Tooling


  • Publications

    Paper # 107 Characterization of Molybdenum Nitride Coatings Produced by Arc-PVD Technique
    Urgen M, Eryylmaz O L, Cakyr A F, Kayaly E S, Nilufer B, Ipyk Y,
    Presented at ICMCTF97, published in Surface & Coatings Technology, 94/95, 1997.
    Paper # 151 The Effect of Load and Relative Humidity on Friction Coefficient Between High Density Polyethylene on Galvanized Steel – Preliminary Results
    Da Silva C H, Tanaka D K, Sinatora A,
    Wear 225-229 (1999), 339-342.
    Paper # 373 The Effects of Abrasive Particle Size on the Sliding Friction Coefficient of Steel using a Spiral Pin-on-disk Apparatus
    Pintaude G, Tanaka D K, Sinatora A,
    Wear 255 (2003) 55 – 59
    Paper # 444 Comparison of flame sprayed Al2O3/TiO2 coatings: Their microstructure, mechanical properties and tribology behavior
    KA Habib, JJ Saura, C Ferrer, MS Damra, E Giménez
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 201, Issues 3-4, 5 October 2006, p. 1436-1443
    Paper # 508 Selected characteristics of an Ormocer and a conventional hybrid resin composite
    DA Tagtekin, FC Yanikoglu, FO Bozkurt, B Kologlu, Sur H
    Dental Materials June 2004 p. 487-497
    Paper # 513 Sliding wear behaviour of ZrN and (Zr, 12wt% Hf) N coatings
    E Atar, ES Kayali, H Cimenoglu
    Tribology International Volume 39, Issue 4 , April 2006, p. 297-302. …
    Paper # 528 Surface modification of titanium by plasma nitriding
    MP Kapczinski, C Gil, EJ Kinast, CA Santos
    Materials Research Volume 6 No 2 São Carlos April/June 2003
    Paper # 567 Tribological properties of perfluoralkylethyl methacrylate-polymethyl methacrylate copolymer thin films
    Y Tongkhundam, A Sirivat, W Brostow
    Polymer Volume 45, Issue 26, December 2004, p. 8731-8738
    Paper # 699 Load effect in abrasive wear mechanism of cast iron with graphite and cementite
    JJ Coronado, A Sinatora
    Wear of Materials 2009
    Paper # 700 Mild and severe wear of steels and cast irons in sliding abrasion
    G Pintaude, FG Bernardes, MM Santos, A Sinatora, E Albertin
    Wear of Materials 2009
    Paper # 749 Effect of (Fe, Cr) 7C3 carbide orientation on abrasion wear resistance and fracture toughness
    JJ Coronado
    Wear 2010 available online 10 November 2010
    Paper # 761 Film formation mechanism in glass lubrication by polymer latex dispersions
    M Beauvais, B Piezel, F Hamidi, M Villalobos
    Thin Solid Films 2010 Volume 518, Issue 6, p. 1689-1697
    Paper # 769 Mechanical behavior of stiff coating on glass under sliding contact
    X Geng, Z Zhang, E Barthel
    Wear 2010 Volume 269, Issues 5-6, p. 351-361
    Paper # 836 Effect of load and carbide orientation on abrasive wear resistance of white cast iron
    JJ Coronado
    Wear Volume 270, Issues 11-12, 5 May 2011, Pages 823-827
    Paper # 843 Improved adhesion and tribological properties of fast-deposited hard graphite-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon films
    T Zaharia, P Kudlacek, M Creatore
    Diamond and Related Materials Volume 20, Issue 9, October 2011, Pages 1266-1272
    Paper # 846 Mécanismes d’endommagement d’empilements optiques de faible adhésion sous contact glissant
    D Davy, G Xuan
    Paper # 951 Sliding Wear and Friction Behavior of CrN-coating in Ethanol and Oil-Ethanol Mixture
    AL Bandeira, R Trentin, C Aguzzoli, MEH Maia da Costa, AF Michels, IJR Baumvol, MCM Farias
    Wear Volume 301, Issues 1–2, April–May 2013, Pages 786–794
    Paper # 974 Dry sliding wear behavior of SS316L composites containing h-BN and MoS< sub> 2 solid lubricants
    S Mahathanabodee, T Palathai, S Raadnui, R Tongsri
    Wear, 2014, Elsevier
    Paper # 1029 Influence of Al2O3 Nano-dispersions on Mechanical and Wear Resistance Properties of Semisolid Cast A356 Al Alloy
    AY Shash, AE Amer, M El-Saeed
    Mechanical and Materials Engineering 2015
    Paper # 1033 Nanokompozit Mo-N-Cu kaplamalar?n yüksek s?cakl?k a??nma davran???
    U Küley
    2015 polen.itu.edu.tr
    Paper # 1034 Nanoreinforced Cast Al-Si Alloys with Al2O3, TiO2 and ZrO2 Nanoparticles
    IS El-Mahallawi, AY Shash, AE Amer
    Metals 2015 mdpi.com
    Paper # 1035 Nanoreinforced Cast Al-Si Alloys with Al2O3, TiO2 and ZrO2 Nanoparticles
    IS El-Mahallawi, AY Shash, AE Amer
    Metals 2015 mdpi.com
    Paper # 1043 Tribological properties of introducing carbon nanoparticles produced by arc discharge in different paraffin oil grades
    Hesham M. M. El-Sherif , Mokhtar O. A. Mokhtar, Ali A-F. Mostafa, Badr S. N. Azzam
    STLE Annual Meeting & Exhibition 2015, Dallas
    Paper # 1055 Comparison of Wear Resistance of Hawley and Vacuum Formed Retainers: An in-vitro Study
    Vahid Moshkelgosha, M Shomali, M Momeni
    Journal of Dental Biomaterials; Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
    Paper # 1056 The effect of process parameters on the mechanical properties of A356 Al-alloy/ZrO2 nanocomposite
    AY Shash, AE Amer, IS El-Mahallawi
    Journal of Nano Research Vol. 38;
    Paper # 1087 Effect of normal load on abrasive wear resistance and wear micromechanisms in FeMnAlC alloy and other austenitic steels
    OA Zambrano, Y Aguilar, J Valdés, SA Rodríguez
    Wear; Volumes 348-349, 15 February 2016, Pages 61-68
    Paper # 1111  Effect of manganese, silicon and chromium additions on microstructure and wear characteristics of grey cast iron for sugar industries applications
    EET ELSawy, MR EL-Hebeary, ISE El Mahallawi
    Wear – Volumes 390–391, 15 November 2017, Pages 113-124
    Paper # 1137  Novel wear-resistant anti-bacterial stainless steel surfaces
    L Tian, X Li, H Dong
    Surface Engineering – Published online: 19 April 2017
    Paper # 1178 Effect of post-coating technique on microstructure, microhardness and the mixed lubrication regime parameters of thermally-sprayed NiCrBSi coatings
    KA Habib, DL Cano, JA Heredia, JS Mira – Surface and Coatings
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 358, 25 January 2019, Pages 824-832
    Paper # 1205 Low adhesion effect of novel duplex NC/WC: C coatings against ductile materials at elevated temperatures
    Y Dong, K Zheng, G Fuentes, H Dong
    Materials Letters Volume 220, 1 June 2018, Pages 32-35
    Paper # 1213 Novel wear-resistant anti-bacterial stainless steel surfaces
    L Tian, X Li, H Dong
    Surface Engineering Volume 34, 2018 – Issue 8
    Paper # 1297   Effect of debris size on the tribological performance of thermally sprayed coatings
    KA Habib, DL Cano, JA Heredia
    Tribology International, 2020 – Elsevier
    Paper # 1298   Effect of post-coating technique on microstructure, microhardness and the mixed lubrication regime parameters of thermally-sprayed NiCrBSi coatings
    KA Habib, DL Cano, JA Heredia, JS Mira
    Surface and Coatings, 2019 – Elsevier
    Paper # 1299   Low temperature growth of diamond-like nanocomposite films prepared by PACVD from Ar diluted siloxane plasma
    S Das, S Jana, D De, U Gangopadhyay
    Materials Research, 2019
    Paper # 1334   Reduced friction and wear of electro-brush plated nickel composite coatings reinforced by graphene oxide
    S Qi, X Li, H Dong
    Wear, 2019 – Elsevier
    Paper #1380  Hardness and tribological properties of co-electrodeposited Ni-WB/B coatings
    K Harachai, N Kothanam, J Qin, Y Boonyongmaneerat, P Jaroenapibal
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds – 2020 – Elsevier
    Paper #1381  Improving the Tribological Properties and Biocompatibility of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass for Potential Biomedical Applications
    V Sawyer, X Tao, H Dong, B Dashtbozorg, X Li, R Sammons, HS Dong
    Materials – 2020 – mdpi.com
    Paper #1382  Thermal analysis, microstructure and performance of AA6063 aluminum alloy casting with Ag and Fe additions
    M Tash, W Khalifa
    Materials Research Express – 2020 – iopscience.iop.org
    Paper #1383  An enhanced ceramic conversion treatment of Ti6Al4V alloy surface by a pre-deposited thin gold layer
    Z Zhang, Y Zhang, X Li, J Alexander, H Dong
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds – 2020 – Elsevier


  • User List

    Launched 1995

    NV Bekaert SA Belgium
    Escola Politecnica Universidade Sao Paulo Brazil
    UFRGS/FINEP Instituto de Fiscia, Porte Alegre Brazil
    Cairo University (Tribology Laboratory) Egypt
    IUT de St Etienne France
    Saint Gobain Recherche France
    The Associated Cement Co Ltd India
    S-OIL Korea
    Jaume I University of Castello, Nr. Valencia Spain
    Chulalongkorn University (Metallurgy & Materials Science Research Institute) Thailand
    ITU, Istanbul Turkey
    Procter & Gamble (Health & Beauty Care) Ltd UK
    Birmingham University UK

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