The TE 88 Multi-Station Friction and Wear Test Machine is design for wear testing of materials under high contact pressures in pin on disc, block on ring or reciprocating pin on plate modes. In reciprocating mode the machine can perform tests in the ASTM F 732 geometry, in Pin on Disc mode according to ASTM G 99, and in Block on Ring Mode according to ASTM G 77. The machine may be supplied with one, two and three Pin on Disc, Block on Ring or Reciprocating Pin on Plate test stations. It incorporates an integrated SUPERSLIM Serial Link Interface Module and COMPEND 2000software running on a host PC.
TE 88/BU Base Unit
The base unit comprises an a.c. variable speed gear-motor and a control and data acquisition system. These are transferred between the Pin on Disc, Block on Ring and Pin on Plate modules, depending on the tests configurations required.
TE 88/LFW Load/Friction/Wear Measurement Assembly
For each test station installed, a load/friction/wear assembly is required. These are transferred between the Pin on Disc, Block on Ring and Pin on Plate modules, depending on the tests configurations required.
The loading beam is pivoted at one end and a pneumatic bellows is used to apply a load at the other end. The bellows system presents a constant inertial stiffness over the whole load range and thereby reduces the inertia effects on test data. A force transducer mounted on the bellows allows the applied load to be measured. Load is adjusted by means of a manually set precision regulator.
The load beam pivot is trunnion mounted and restrained from movement, when in the horizontal position, by pads mounted on the load application bracket. A strain gauge force transducer mounts on the load beam and fits between these pads when the arm is horizontal thus allowing the friction signal to be sensed.
The transducer output connects to a strain gauge amplifier module and the output from this may be connected direct to the interface for uni-directional friction measurements (pin on disc and block on ring tests). The output may also be passed through a true rms/dc converter and then connected to the interface to give averaged friction readings in reciprocating pin on plate mode.
An LVDT is mounted in contact with the underside of the load beam. As the pin or block wears, the vertical movement of the load beam is detected by the transducer. Wear of up to 1.5 mm at the contact can be measured. The LVDT is self-powered and plugs directly into the interface.
TE 88/R Reciprocating Pin on Plate Module
TE 88/P Pin on Disc Module
TE 88/B Block on Ring Module
TE 88/TW Thrust Washer Test Adapter
TE 88/TW adapted is used in conjunction with the TE 88/P Pin on Disc Module and allows tests to be performed using thrust washer test specimens in accordance with ASTM D3702. A force transducer is included for measurement of torque.
TE 88/HT High Temperature Pin on Disc Test Adapter
Hot air from a electrically heated blower unit is then directed into the inlet port and a chimney directs the exhaust upwards from the outlet port. The temperature of the disc specimen is measured using an optical pyrometer.
Control and Data Acquisition
The TE 88 has PC based sequence programmable control and data acquisition. This is provided by an integrated Serial Link Interface Module and COMPEND 2000 software running on a host PC, operating under Windows. Data is stored to hard disc in standard spread sheet compatible file formats (.csv or .tsv).
Tests are defined by a sequence of steps, each step containing set-point, data recording rates and alarm level information. Set-points may be adjusted by step change or ramp. The test sequence is followed unless interrupted by the operator or an alarm. Set-points may also be adjusted manually using on screen toggles.
ONE Station Pin on Disc, Block on Ring, Reciprocating Pin on Plate Machine with Wear Transducer:
TE 88/BU Base Unit TE 88/LFW Load/Friction Measurement Assembly TE 88/R-1 Reciprocating Pin on Plate Module TE 88/P-1 Pin on Disc Module TE 88/B-1 Block on Ring Module
THREE Station Reciprocating Pin on Plate Machine:
TE 88/BU Base Unit TE 88/LFW Load/Friction Measurement Assembly TE 88/LFW Load/Friction Measurement Assembly TE 88/LFW Load/Friction Measurement Assembly TE 88/R-3 Reciprocating Pin on Plate Module – Three Test Stations
ONE Station High Temperature Pin on Disc Machine:
TE 88/BU Base Unit TE 88/LFW Load/Friction Measurement Assembly TE 88/P-1 Pin on Disc Module – One Test Station TE 88/HT High Temperature Pin on Disc Test Adapter
TE 88 Base Unit Interface: Serial Link Interface Module Software: COMPEND 2000 Motor: 2.2 kW ac TE 88/LFW Load/Friction Measurement Assembly Normal Load: 10 to 1,000N Signal Conditioning: Strain Gauge Amplifier Module Friction Force Range: 500 N Signal Conditioning: Strain Gauge Amplifier Module RMS/DC Converter Module Wear: LVDT Range: 1.5 mm Resolution: 1 µm Specimen Holder: 8 mm and 5.5 mm diameter pins Optional Holders: 10 mm and 6 mm diameter balls TE 88/R Reciprocating Pin on Plate Module Contact Configurations: Pin on Plate Ball on Plate Number of Stations: Three Temperature Range: Ambient to 400°C Heating Power: 800 W Temperature sensor: k-type thermocouple Stroke/Frequency: Up to 25 mm at 2 Hz Up to 50 mm at 1 Hz TE 88/P Pin on Disc Module Contact Configurations: Pin on Disc Ball on Disc Optional Configuration: Thrust Washer Number of Stations: One, Two or Three Disc Diameter: 75 mm Track Radius: 0 to 35 mm Fluid Temperature: Ambient to 200°C Heating Power: 800 W Temperature sensor: k-type thermocouple Rotation Speed: 30 to 1,000 rpm Sliding Velocity: 0.12 to 4 m/s TE 88/B Block on Ring Module Contact Configurations: Block on Ring Ball on Ring Number of Stations: One, Two or Three Ring Diameter: 80 mm Rotation Speed: 30 to 1,000 rpm TE 88/TW Thrust Washer Test Adapters Thrust Washer: 1.125 inch O/D according to ASTM D 3702 2 inch O/D according to ASTM D 3702 TE 88/HT High Temperature Pin on Disc Test Adapter Temperature Range: up to 400°C Air Heating Power: 2.8 kW Temperature sensing: Optical Pyrometer Automatically Controlled Parameters Rotational Speed Test Duration Manually Controlled Parameters Load Measured Parameters Friction Load Temperature Wear Rotational Speed Number of Revolutions Test Duration Sliding Speed Oscillating Frequency Friction Coefficient Sliding Distance Services Electricity: 220/240V, single phase, 50 Hz, 3 kW 110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 3 kW Clean, dry air: 4 cfm at 8 bar (120 psi) Installation Bench-mounting machine: 1,300 x 720 x 850 mm high, 250 kg Bench-mounting cabinet: 530 x 530 x 350 mm high, 40 kg Packing Specifications: 1.25 m3, GW 271 kg, NW 193 kg
Paper # 376 The Effects of Additive Elements on the Sliding Wear Behaviour of Fe-base Hardfacing Alloys Lee K Y, Lee S H, Kim Y, Hong H S, Oh Y M, Kim S J, Wear 255 (2003) 481 – 488 Paper # 572 Wear Behaviour of Plasma Sprayed WC-Ni Coatings C Tekmen, H Cetinel, A Turk, E Celik Key Engineering Materials Volume 264 – 268 (2004) p. 589 – 592 Paper # 630 Wear behaviour of thermal flame sprayed FeCr coatings on plain carbon steel substrate B Uyulgan, E Dokumaci, E Celik, I Kayatekin, NF Ak Azema, I Ozdemira, M Toparli, Journal of Materials Processing Technology Volume 190, Issues 1-3, 23 July 2007, p. 204-210 Paper # 682 Tribological behavior of Cr2O3 coatings as bearing materials Hakan Cetinel, Erdal Celik and Murat I Kusoglu Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 196, Issues 1-3, 21 January 2008, p. 259-265 Paper # 745 Assessing the Tribocorrosion Performance of Three Different Nickel-Based Superalloys KC Tekin Tribology Letters 2010 Volume 37, Number 3, 563-572 Paper # 776 Optimization of reinforcement content and sliding distance for AlSi7Mg/SiCp composites using response surface methodology M Bayhan Materials & Design 2010 Volume 31, Issue 6, p. 3015-3022 Paper # 839 Evaluation of Die-Soldering and Erosion Resistance of High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Sprayed MoB-Based Cermet Coatings FF Khan, G Bae, K Kang, H Na, J Kim Journal of Thermal Spray Technology Volume 20, Number 5, 1022-1034 Paper # 887 Tribological properties of plasma electrolytic oxide coatings on magnesium alloys KC Tekin, U Malayoglu Tribology – Materials, Surfaces & Interfaces, Volume 6, Number 2, June 2012 , pp. 67-74(8) Paper # 1060 Tribology Testing of Lubrication and Surface Treatment of Tool Interfaces in Hot Forging of Aluminium CE Eggen Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet ; Trondheim, June 2016 Paper # 1144 The Role of Oxide Tribofilms on Friction and Wear of Different Thermally Sprayed WC-CoCr JAR Wesmann, S Kuroda, N Espallargas Journal of Thermal Spray Technology – February 2017, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 492–502
EADS Germany Ostthuringishe Materialprufgesellschaft Germany Technical Universitaet Harburg, Hamburg Germany Chonbuk National University Korea Dong Ui University Korea Hang Yang University Korea Keimyung University Korea POSCO Kwangyang Korea SINTEF/NTNU Norway University of Cartagena Spain Kinetics Corporation Thailand Eylul University Turkey Smith & Nephew Ltd UK
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