The TE 69 Load Scanner is based on modified version of an instrument developed by Professors Sture Hogmark and Staffan Jacobson at Uppsala University, Department of Materials Science, Sweden. The original Uppsala design has just one actuator to generate sliding motion, while at the same time tensioning a spring, to apply load. With the TE 69, the samples are indexed and the load applied by three independently controlled, but synchronised motion, actuators. This
    provides a significant increase in the functionality of the machine.

    The standard load scanner test configuration is used for assessing the friction and wear properties of materials and lubricants. Two elongated test specimens, preferably bars or rods, are used. The orientation of the test specimens and their relative sliding motion during testing is arranged in such a way that the contact spot moves along a contact path on each specimen; each spot along this path on one specimen will only make contact with one spot on the other specimen, and viceverse. The contact spot is the area over which the contact load is distributed.

    The relative motion is generated by two servo-controlled ball-screw actuators, with one connected to the lower specimen carriage and the other to the upper specimen carriage. The carriages are moved synchronously, in equal but opposite directions, so that the point of contact does not move relative to the machine.
    The upper specimen carriage is mounted on a pivoted lever arm and load is applied by means of a pulley mechanism and spring, connected between the arm and a third servo actuator. This allows control of the load profile, independent of the motion control. Instead of the load rising and falling with forward and reverse motion, as per the original Uppsala design, the system can be programmed to apply a steady or increasing load on the forward stroke, but remove the load
    for the reverse stroke, thus producing repeated, unidirectional motion.

    Standard Load Scanner Applications

    A single pass experiment resembles the test procedure often used in scratch testing of coated specimens. For coatings evaluation, it is normal to have one specimen coated and select the material from the practical application, for the counter specimen.
    Reciprocating sliding tests, with stroke-wise load variation, can be used to produce conditions ranging from mild wear to scuffing, at different positions on a single pair of specimens.

    Tests may be run either dry, with the rod samples carried on individual heater blocks, or lubricated, with the lower rod sample carried in a heated lubricant bath.

    Alternative Configurations

    With the upper specimen carriage parked, the upper sample can be replaced by a pin or an indenter. The lower specimen can now be a plate and the machine used in reciprocating pin on plate mode.

    Independent control of the load allows tests to be run with a steady state load, or with a ramped load as in a conventional scratch test.

    Control and Data Acquisition

    COMPEND control and data acquisition software, in conjunction with Phoenix Tribology’s own USB interface module, provides automatic control of load, speed, stroke length, temperature and test duration, combined with data logging of all measured parameters.


  • Technical Specifications

    Contact Geometry: Crossed Cylinder on Cylinder
    Crossed Flat on Flat
    Pin on Plate
    Indenter on Plate
    Test Modes: Load Scanner Mode with Crossed Rod Specimens
    Constant Load Mode with Crossed Rod Specimens
    Pin on Plate Mode with Constant Load
    Pin on Plate Scratch Test Mode with Ramped Load
    Maximum Load: 2000 N
    Tooling Clamps Unheated: 3.2 mm diameter and 12 mm diameter
    Tooling Clamps Heated: 3.2 mm diameter and 12 mm diameter
    Cylinder Length: 175 mm
    Wear Scar Length – Load Scanner: 100 mm
    Wear Scar Length – Pin on Plate: 75 mm
    Maximum Stage Travel: 75 mm (each)
    Maximum Repetition Rate: 0.3 Hz
    Lubricant Bath Temperature: Ambient to 250°C
    Upper Rod Specimen Temperature: Ambient to 600°C (dry tests only)
    Lower Rod Specimen Temperature: Ambient to 600°C (dry tests only)
    Load and Traverse Actuators (Qty:3) : Servo-controlled Ball-screw
    Dynamic Force: 700 N
    Static Force: 700 N
    Maximum Traverse Speed: 150 mm/s
    Load Arm Ratio: 5:1/s
    Actuator Motors: 400 W

    Automatically Controlled Parameters

    Traverse Speed
    Bath Temperature (lubricated tests)
    Upper Specimen Temperature (dry tests)
    Lower Specimen Temperature (dry tests)
    Test Duration
    Starting Load
    Rate of loading

    Recorded Parameters

    Traverse Speed
    Stroke Displacement
    Friction Force
    Bath Temperature (lubricated tests)
    Upper Specimen Temperature (dry tests)
    Lower Specimen Temperature (dry tests)
    Number of Cycles
    Test Duration
    Friction Coefficient
    Sliding Distance


    Electricity: 220/240V, single phase, 50 Hz, 3 kW
    110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 3 kW

  • Applications

    composite materials
    forming lubricants
    machine tool slideway lubricants
    metal matrix composites
    mining applications
    pin on plate

  • Machine Overview



  • Publications

    Paper # 353  A New Universal Test for Tribological Evaluation
    Hogmark S, Jacobson S, Wänstrand O,
    Proceedings of the 21st IRG-OECD Meeting, Amsterdam, March 25-26, 1999
    Paper # 354  The Uppsala Load-Scanner – An Update
    Hogmark S, Jacobson S, Wänstrand O,
    The Tribomaterials Group, Ångström Laboratory Uppsala University 2002
    Paper # 377  Effect of Temperature on Friction and Galling of Laser Processed Norem 02 and Stellite 21
    Persson D H E, Jacobson S, Hogmark S,
    Wear 255 (2003) 498 – 503
    Paper # 726  Influence of surface roughness and coating type on the galling properties of coated forming tool steel
    B Podgornik, S Hogmark , O Sandberg
    Surface and Coatings Technology 184 (2004 )338 –348
    Paper # 863  Failure mechanisms of a tungsten-modified hydrogenated amorphous carbon coating in load-scanning tests
    H Hetzner, J Schaufler, S Tremmel, K Durst
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 212, November 2012, Pages 46–54
    Paper #1365  Amorphous Carbon Coatings for Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming Tools
    T Weikert, S Tremmel
    Industrial Colloquium of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 73 – 2020 – Springer


  • User List

    Launched 2002

    University of Erlangen Germany
    Sandvik UK

  • Download the Machine Leaflet