The TE 69 Load Scanner is based on modified version of a universal test instrument for tribological evaluation developed by Professors Sture Hogmark and Staffan Jacobson at Uppsala University, Department of Materials Science, Sweden. The key difference between the TE 69 and the original Uppsala design is that in the latter, motion is applied to only one sample, whereas in the TE 69, both samples are indexed, with the result that the applied load varies linearly with displacement.

    In the standard test configuration, two elongated rod specimens are arranged in such a way that the contact spot moves along a contact path on each specimen, with each spot along this path on one specimen only making contact with one spot on the other specimen, and vice versa. The contact spot is the area over which the contact load is distributed.

    In the original TE 69, motion was generated by a single actuator and linkage mechanism, driving the upper and lower specimen carriages in opposite directions, such that the contact spot, hence its position relative to the load arm pivot, remained constant. The load was applied by means of a pulley mechanism and spring arrangement, connected between the load arm and the lower specimen carriage. The loading arrangement was such that the load increased or decreased with relative motion of the specimens, thus resulting in a unique load at each unique contact spot on the two specimens.

    In the latest version of the TE 69, the single actuator and linkage mechanism are replaced by three independently controlled ball-screw actuators, one to drive the upper carriage, one the lower carriage, and the third to apply load. This allows the following test configurations to be implemented:
    • Load Scanner mode with crossed rod specimens and ramped load
    • Constant Load mode with crossed rod specimens
    • Pin on Plate mode with constant load
    • Pin on Plate “Scratch Test” mode with ramped load
    Test may be run as either single pass or with reciprocating motion.

    Control and Data Acquisition

    The TE 69 has PC based sequence programmable control and data acquisition. This is provided by COMPEND software running on a host PC, operating under Windows. Data is stored to hard disc in standard spread sheet compatible file formats (.csv or .tsv). A 16 bit high-speed data acquisition card is fitted as standard. The maximum data acquisition rate typically used is 2 kHz.

    Tests are defined by a sequence of steps, each step containing set-point, data recording rates and alarm level information. Set-points may be adjusted by step change or ramp. The test sequence is followed unless interrupted by the operator or an alarm. Set-points may also be adjusted manually using on screen toggles.


  • Technical Specifications

    Contact Geometry: Crossed Cylinder on Cylinder
    Crossed Flat on Flat
    Pin on Plate
    Indenter on Plate
    Test Modes: Load Scanner Mode with Crossed Rod Specimens
    Constant Load Mode with Crossed Rod Specimens
    Pin on Plate Mode with Constant Load
    Pin on Plate Scratch Test Mode with Ramped Load
    Maximum Load: 2000 N
    Tooling Clamps Unheated: 3.2 mm diameter and 12 mm diameter
    Tooling Clamps Heated: 3.2 mm diameter and 12 mm diameter
    Cylinder Length: 175 mm
    Wear Scar Length – Load Scanner: 100 mm
    Wear Scar Length – Pin on Plate: 75 mm
    Maximum Stage Travel: 75 mm (each)
    Maximum Sliding Speed: 0.1 m/s
    Maximum Repetition Rate: 0.3 Hz
    Lubricant Bath Temperature: Ambient to 250°C
    Upper Rod Specimen Temperature: Ambient to 600°C (dry tests only)
    Lower Rod Specimen Temperature: Ambient to 600°C (dry tests only)
    Traverse Actuators: Ball-screw actuator with brushless DC motor
    Load Actuator: Ball-screw actuator with brushless DC motor
    Dynamic Force: 700 N
    Static Force: 700 N
    Stroke: 100 mm
    Maximum Speed: Maximum Speed: 150 mm/s

    Automatically Controlled Parameters

    Rate of Loading
    Traverse Speed
    Bath Temperature (lubricated tests)
    Upper Specimen Temperature (dry tests)
    Lower Specimen Temperature (dry tests)
    Test Duration

    Recorded Parameters

    Traverse Speed
    Stroke Displacement
    Friction Force
    Bath Temperature (lubricated tests)
    Upper Specimen Temperature (dry tests)
    Lower Specimen Temperature (dry tests)
    Number of Cycles
    Test Duration
    Friction Coefficient
    Sliding Distance


    Electricity: 220/240V, single phase, 50 Hz, 3 kW
    110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 3 kW

  • Applications

    composite materials
    forming lubricants
    machine tool slideway lubricants
    metal matrix composites
    mining applications
    pin on plate

  • Publications

    Paper # 353  A New Universal Test for Tribological Evaluation
    Hogmark S, Jacobson S, Wänstrand O,
    Proceedings of the 21st IRG-OECD Meeting, Amsterdam, March 25-26, 1999
    Paper # 354  The Uppsala Load-Scanner – An Update
    Hogmark S, Jacobson S, Wänstrand O,
    The Tribomaterials Group, Ångström Laboratory Uppsala University 2002
    Paper # 377  Effect of Temperature on Friction and Galling of Laser Processed Norem 02 and Stellite 21
    Persson D H E, Jacobson S, Hogmark S,
    Wear 255 (2003) 498 – 503
    Paper # 726  Influence of surface roughness and coating type on the galling properties of coated forming tool steel
    B Podgornik, S Hogmark , O Sandberg
    Surface and Coatings Technology 184 (2004 )338 –348
    Paper # 863  Failure mechanisms of a tungsten-modified hydrogenated amorphous carbon coating in load-scanning tests
    H Hetzner, J Schaufler, S Tremmel, K Durst
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 212, November 2012, Pages 46–54
    Paper #1365  Amorphous Carbon Coatings for Sheet-Bulk Metal Forming Tools
    T Weikert, S Tremmel
    Industrial Colloquium of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 73 – 2020 – Springer


  • User List

    Launched 2002

    University of Erlangen Germany
    Sandvik UK

  • Download the Machine Leaflet