The TE 69 Load Scanner is based on modified version of a universal test instrument for tribological evaluation developed by Professors Sture Hogmark and Staffan Jacobson at Uppsala University, Department of Materials Science, Sweden. The key difference between the TE 69 and the original Uppsala design is that in the latter, motion is applied to only one sample, whereas in the TE 69, both samples are indexed, with the result that the applied load varies linearly with displacement.
The device offers a new test configuration for assessing the friction and wear properties of materials and lubricants. Two elongated test specimens, preferably bars or rods, are used. The orientation of the test specimens and their relative sliding motion during testing is arranged in such a way that the contact spot moves along a contact path on each specimen, and each spot along this path on one specimen will only make contact to one spot on the other specimen, and vice verse. The contact spot is the area over which the contact load is distributed.
A single pass experiment resembles the test procedure often used in scratch testing of coated specimens. In scratch testing, the tip is usually made of diamond. For coatings evaluation using the TE 69 Load Scanner, it is normal to have one specimen coated and select the same material for the counter specimen, as expected in the practical application of coatings to components. Thus, the friction and adhesion assessment performed better emulates actual conditions.
This TE 69 Load Scanner may also be used for repeated reciprocating sliding tests thus demonstrating in a single test friction and wear characteristics under conditions ranging from mild wear to scuffing on a single pair of specimens.
The upper specimen carriage may be locked, with the upper sample replaced by a pin or an indenter and the lower specimen replaced with a plate sample.
The traverse actuated loading system may be disconnected and a steady state load applied by means of a pneumatic bellows and precision regulator, with the resulting load measured by load cell..
With the upper carriage locked and traverse actuated loading, the machine can be considered as a high load scratch tester. With the upper carriage locked and a steady state load applied, the machine can be considered as a conventional Bowden-Leben (reciprocating pin on plate) machine.
Control and Data Acquisition
The TE 69 has PC based sequence programmable control and data acquisition. This is provided by COMPEND 2000 software running on a host PC, operating under Windows. Data is stored to hard disc in standard spread sheet compatible file formats (.csv or .tsv). A 16 bit high-speed data acquisition card is fitted as standard. The maximum data acquisition rate typically used is 2 kHz.
Tests are defined by a sequence of steps, each step containing set-point, data recording rates and alarm level information. Set-points may be adjusted by step change or ramp. The test sequence is followed unless interrupted by the operator or an alarm. Set-points may also be adjusted manually using on screen toggles.
Contact Geometry: Crossed Cylinder on Cylinder Crossed Flat on Flat Pin on Plate Indenter on Plate Maximum Load: 2000 N Tooling Clamps Unheated: 3.2 mm diameter and 12 mm diameter Tooling Clamps Heated: 3.2 mm diameter and 12 mm diameter Cylinder Length: 175 mm Wear Scar Length – Load Scanner: 100 mm Wear Scar Length – Pin on Plate: 75 mm Maximum Stage Travel: 75 mm (each) Lever Arm Ratio: 5:1 Maximum Sliding Speed: 0.1 m/s Maximum Repetition Rate: 0.3 Hz Lubricant Bath Temperature: Ambient to 250°C Upper Rod Specimen Temperature: Ambient to 600°C (dry tests only) Lower Rod Specimen Temperature: Ambient to 600°C (dry tests only) Traverse Actuator: 0.37 kW balls screw actuator Motor Drive: a.c. Vector Drive Automatically Controlled Parameters Traverse Speed Bath Temperature (lubricated tests) Upper Specimen Temperature (dry tests) Lower Specimen Temperature (dry tests) Test Duration Mechanically Adjusted Parameters Starting Load Rate of Loading Recorded Parameters Traverse Speed Load Stroke Displacement Friction Force Bath Temperature (lubricated tests) Upper Specimen Temperature (dry tests) Lower Specimen Temperature (dry tests) Number of Cycles Test Duration Friction Coefficient Sliding Distance Services Electricity: 220/240V, single phase, 50 Hz, 3 kW 110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 3 kW
ceramics coatings composite materials forming lubricants galling hardmetals machine tool slideway lubricants metal matrix composites mining applications pin on plate
Paper # 353 A New Universal Test for Tribological Evaluation Hogmark S, Jacobson S, Wänstrand O, Proceedings of the 21st IRG-OECD Meeting, Amsterdam, March 25-26, 1999 Paper # 354 The Uppsala Load-Scanner – An Update Hogmark S, Jacobson S, Wänstrand O, The Tribomaterials Group, Ångström Laboratory Uppsala University 2002 Paper # 377 Effect of Temperature on Friction and Galling of Laser Processed Norem 02 and Stellite 21 Persson D H E, Jacobson S, Hogmark S, Wear 255 (2003) 498 – 503 Paper # 726 Influence of surface roughness and coating type on the galling properties of coated forming tool steel B Podgornik, S Hogmark , O Sandberg Surface and Coatings Technology 184 (2004 )338 –348 Paper # 863 Failure mechanisms of a tungsten-modified hydrogenated amorphous carbon coating in load-scanning tests H Hetzner, J Schaufler, S Tremmel, K Durst Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 212, November 2012, Pages 46–54
University of Erlangen Germany Sandvik UK
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