The TE 69 Load Scanner is based on modified version of a universal test instrument for tribological evaluation developed by Professors Sture Hogmark and Staffan Jacobson at Uppsala University, Department of Materials Science, Sweden. The key difference between the TE 69 and the original Uppsala design is that in the latter, motion is applied to only one sample, whereas in the TE 69, both samples are indexed, with the result that the applied load varies linearly with displacement.

    The device offers a new test configuration for assessing the friction and wear properties of materials and lubricants. Two elongated test specimens, preferably bars or rods, are used. The orientation of the test specimens and their relative sliding motion during testing is arranged in such a way that the contact spot moves along a contact path on each specimen, and each spot along this path on one specimen will only make contact to one spot on the other specimen, and vice verse. The contact spot is the area over which the contact load is distributed.

    The load is applied by means of a pulley mechanism and spring arrangement, connected between the load arm and the lower specimen carriage. The loading arrangement is such that the load increases or decreases with relative motion of the specimens, thus resulting in a unique load at each unique contact point on the two specimens.

    The lower specimen carriage is driven by means of a precision ball screw actuator. Corresponding motion is transmitted to the upper specimen carriage by means of a simple linkage, ensuring identical motion but in the opposite direction.

    Standard Applications

    A single pass experiment resembles the test procedure often used in scratch testing of coated specimens. In scratch testing, the tip is usually made of diamond. For coatings evaluation using the TE 69 Load Scanner, it is normal to have one specimen coated and select the same material for the counter specimen, as expected in the practical application of coatings to components. Thus, the friction and adhesion assessment performed better emulates actual conditions.

    This TE 69 Load Scanner may also be used for repeated reciprocating sliding tests thus demonstrating in a single test friction and wear characteristics under conditions ranging from mild wear to scuffing on a single pair of specimens.

    Alternative Configuration

    The upper specimen carriage may be locked, with the upper sample replaced by a pin or an indenter and the lower specimen replaced with a plate sample.

    The traverse actuated loading system may be disconnected and a steady state load applied by means of a pneumatic bellows and precision regulator, with the resulting load measured by load cell..

    With the upper carriage locked and traverse actuated loading, the machine can be considered as a high load scratch tester. With the upper carriage locked and a steady state load applied, the machine can be considered as a conventional Bowden-Leben (reciprocating pin on plate) machine.

    Control and Data Acquisition

    The TE 69 has PC based sequence programmable control and data acquisition. This is provided by COMPEND 2000 software running on a host PC, operating under Windows. Data is stored to hard disc in standard spread sheet compatible file formats (.csv or .tsv). A 16 bit high-speed data acquisition card is fitted as standard. The maximum data acquisition rate typically used is 2 kHz.

    Tests are defined by a sequence of steps, each step containing set-point, data recording rates and alarm level information. Set-points may be adjusted by step change or ramp. The test sequence is followed unless interrupted by the operator or an alarm. Set-points may also be adjusted manually using on screen toggles.


  • Technical Specifications

    Contact Geometry: Crossed Cylinder on Cylinder
    Crossed Flat on Flat
    Pin on Plate
    Indenter on Plate
    Maximum Load: 2000 N
    Tooling Clamps Unheated: 3.2 mm diameter and 12 mm diameter
    Tooling Clamps Heated: 3.2 mm diameter and 12 mm diameter
    Cylinder Length: 175 mm
    Wear Scar Length – Load Scanner: 100 mm
    Wear Scar Length – Pin on Plate: 75 mm
    Maximum Stage Travel: 75 mm (each)
    Lever Arm Ratio: 5:1
    Maximum Sliding Speed: 0.1 m/s
    Maximum Repetition Rate: 0.3 Hz
    Lubricant Bath Temperature: Ambient to 250°C
    Upper Rod Specimen Temperature: Ambient to 600°C (dry tests only)
    Lower Rod Specimen Temperature: Ambient to 600°C (dry tests only)
    Traverse Actuator: 0.37 kW balls screw actuator
    Motor Drive: a.c. Vector Drive
    Automatically Controlled Parameters Traverse Speed
    Bath Temperature (lubricated tests)
    Upper Specimen Temperature (dry tests)
    Lower Specimen Temperature (dry tests)
    Test Duration
    Mechanically Adjusted Parameters Starting Load
    Rate of Loading
    Recorded Parameters Traverse Speed
    Stroke Displacement
    Friction Force
    Bath Temperature (lubricated tests)
    Upper Specimen Temperature (dry tests)
    Lower Specimen Temperature (dry tests)
    Number of Cycles
    Test Duration
    Friction Coefficient
    Sliding Distance
    Electricity: 220/240V, single phase, 50 Hz, 3 kW
    110/120 V, single phase, 60 Hz, 3 kW

  • Applications

    composite materials
    forming lubricants
    machine tool slideway lubricants
    metal matrix composites
    mining applications
    pin on plate

  • Publications

    Paper # 353  A New Universal Test for Tribological Evaluation
    Hogmark S, Jacobson S, Wänstrand O,
    Proceedings of the 21st IRG-OECD Meeting, Amsterdam, March 25-26, 1999
    Paper # 354  The Uppsala Load-Scanner – An Update
    Hogmark S, Jacobson S, Wänstrand O,
    The Tribomaterials Group, Ångström Laboratory Uppsala University 2002
    Paper # 377  Effect of Temperature on Friction and Galling of Laser Processed Norem 02 and Stellite 21
    Persson D H E, Jacobson S, Hogmark S,
    Wear 255 (2003) 498 – 503
    Paper # 726  Influence of surface roughness and coating type on the galling properties of coated forming tool steel
    B Podgornik, S Hogmark , O Sandberg
    Surface and Coatings Technology 184 (2004 )338 –348
    Paper # 863  Failure mechanisms of a tungsten-modified hydrogenated amorphous carbon coating in load-scanning tests
    H Hetzner, J Schaufler, S Tremmel, K Durst
    Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 212, November 2012, Pages 46–54


  • User List

    Launched 2002

    University of Erlangen Germany
    Sandvik UK

  • Download the Machine Leaflet