The TE 86 Multi-station Hip Joint Simulator is manufactured under licence from Dr Vesa Saikko, Laboratory of Machine Design, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology. The device incorporates an electro-mechanical drive and servo-pneumatic loading system. The machine is simple to operate and a very cost effective solution for multi-station wear testing of prosthetic hip joints. The unit is available with twelve test stations, with a maximum load of 2 kN per test station, or six test stations, with a maximum load of 3 kN per test station.
The TE 86 provides two-axis motion with the prosthesis samples mounted in the appropriate anatomical position. The acetabular cup is located above the femoral head so that in the neutral position, the symmetry axes of both the head and the cup are at an angle of 45 degrees to the vertical. This angle can be varied, if required, without difficulty, by varying the design of the tooling.
The head is the moving component and the cup is stationary. The direction of loading is vertical and fixed relative to the cup. The load is dynamic, of double-peak waveform, and is monitored with a force transducer fitted to just one master test stations. The maximum, minimum, and average load values are 2.0 kN, 0.4 kN, and 1.2 kN, respectively.
Loading and Driving System
The FE and AA motions are implemented electro-mechanically by means of a dual motion mechanical crank, driven by a fixed speed a.c. gear-motor. With a 50 Hz excitation frequency, the resulting test frequency is 1.06 Hz. An optional inverter drive can be supplied to allow tests to be performed at lower test frequencies or with different supply frequencies.
Each test station is loaded by means of a low volume pneumatic actuator. The actuators are connected to a common manifold. Air pressure to the manifold is controlled by means of a pneumatic regulator with integral pressure servo loop. The regulator is manually set to give the required peak load, which is measured by the force transducer fitted to the master test station. The measured load signal is thus used for monitoring only. The system is very stable in operation and subsequent manual adjustments are rarely necessary.
Sample Mounting and Test Enclosure
Both the femoral and the acetabular components are easy to demount for periodic cleaning, examination and wear measurement. Quality tooling fixtures allow the test components to be reinstalled in exactly the same position for the continuation of the test. An important characteristic of the design is that any type of prosthetic hip joint can readily be tested.
Test Configuration: Acetabular cup on femoral head Number of Test Stations: 6 or 12 Test Frequency: 1.06 Hz (with 50 Hz supply) 1.27 Hz (with 60 Hz supply) Maximum Load: 3 kN (6 station) or 2 kN (12 station) Minimum Load: 0.4 kN Average Load: 1.2 kN Flexion-extension (FE): 46 degrees Abduction-adduction (AA): 12 degrees Force Track Aspect Ratio: 3.8 Force Track Length: 1.73r (where r is head radius) Motor Power: 370 W Fluid Volume: 500 ml Controlled Parameters Test Load Number of Cycles Services Electricity: 1.5 kW 240 volt 50 Hz single phase plus neutral 1.5 kW 110 volt 60 Hz single phase plus neutral Compressed Air: 4 cfm at 8 bar (typical)
acetabular cup artificial joints bioengineering materials femoral head hip prostheses multi-station prosthetic hip joints
Paper # 605 A 12-station, anatomic hip joint simulator Saikko V J Eng Med, 2005, 219, 437-448. Paper # 714 Wear comparison between a dual mobility total hip prosthesis and a typical modular design using a hip joint simulator V Saikko, Ming Shen Wear 268 (2010) 617 –621 Paper # 804 Laboratory Wear Testing V Saikko Chapter 7, Tribology and Bearing Surfaces in Total Joint Replacements, Edited by Robert M. Streicher, 2011, ISBN: 9788178955254 Paper # 855 The effect of acetabular cup position on wear of a large-diameter metal-on-metal prosthesis studied with a hip joint simulator Vesa Saikko , Tiina Ahlroos , Hannu Revitzer, Oskari Ryti, Petri Kuosmanen Tribology International 60 (2013) 70–76 Paper # 1009 Adverse condition testing with hip simulators V Saikko Biotribology 1–2 (2015) 2–10 Paper # 1048 Effect of increased load on the wear of a large diameter metal-on-metal modular hip prosthesis with a high inclination angle of the acetabular cup Vesa Saikko Tribology International 96 (2016) 149–154 Paper # 1097 A hop, skip, and a jump: Towards better wear testing of hip implants SL Smith, TJ Joyce Mechanical Testing of Orthopaedic Implants – 2017, Pages 183–206 Paper # 1193 Effect of wear, acetabular cup inclination angle, load and serum degradation on the friction of a large diameter metal-on-metal hip prosthesis V Saikko Clinical Biomechanics 63 (2019) 1–9 Paper # 1239 Wear at the taper-trunnion junction of contemporary ceramic-on-ceramic hips shown in a multistation hip simulator RM Bhalekar, SL Smith, TJ Joyce – Journal of Biomedical Journal of Biomedical Research Part B 05 September 2018 Paper # 1301 Wear at the taper‐trunnion junction of contemporary ceramic‐on‐ceramic hips shown in a multistation hip simulator RM Bhalekar, SL Smith, TJ Joyce Journal of Biomedical, 2019 – Wiley Paper # 1302 Hip simulator testing of the taper‐trunnion junction and bearing surfaces of contemporary metal‐on‐cross‐linked‐polyethylene hip prostheses RM Bhalekar, SL Smith, TJ Joyce Journal of Biomedical, 2019 – Wiley
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